This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Trajectory-Based Data Forwarding for Light-Traffic Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
May 2011 (vol. 22 no. 5)
pp. 743-757
Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis
Shuo Guo, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis
Yu (Jason) Gu, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis
Tian He, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis
David H.C. Du, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis
This paper proposes a Trajectory-Based Data (TBD) Forwarding scheme, tailored for the data forwarding for roadside reports in light-traffic vehicular ad hoc networks. State-of-the-art schemes have demonstrated the effectiveness of their data forwarding strategies by exploiting known vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., densities and speeds). These results are encouraging, however, further improvements can be made by taking advantage of the growing popularity of GPS-based navigation systems. This paper presents the first attempt to effectively utilize vehicles' trajectory information in a privacy-preserving manner. In our design, such trajectory information is combined with the vehicular traffic statistics for a better performance. In a distributed way, each individual vehicle computes its end-to-end expected delivery delay to the Internet access points based on its position on its vehicle trajectory and exchanges this delay with neighboring vehicles to determine the best next-hop vehicle. For the accurate end-to-end delay computation, this paper also proposes a link delay model to estimate the packet forwarding delay on a road segment. Through theoretical analysis and extensive simulation, it is shown that our link delay model provides the accurate link delay estimation and our forwarding design outperforms the existing scheme in terms of both the data delivery delay and packet delivery ratio.

[1] A. Carter, "The Status of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication as a Means of Improving Crash Prevention Performance," Technical Report 05-0264, esv/esv1905-0264-W.pdf, 2005.
[2] V. Naumov and T.R. Gross, "Connectivity-Aware Routing (CAR) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[3] Q. Xu, R. Sengupta, and D. Jiang, "Design and Analysis of Highway Safety Communication Protocol in 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication Spectrum," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC), Apr. 2003.
[4] J. Zhao and G. Cao, "VADD: Vehicle-Assisted Data Delivery in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1910-1922, May 2008.
[5] A. Skordylis and N. Trigoni, "Delay-Bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, May 2008.
[6] J. Eriksson, H. Balakrishnan, and S. Madden, "Cabernet: Vehicular Content Delivery Using WiFi," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2008.
[7] V. Bychkovsky, B. Hull, A. Miu, H. Balakrishnan, and S. Madden, "A Measurement Study of Vehicular Internet Access Using In Situ Wi-Fi Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2006.
[8] H. Yomogita, "Mobile GPS Accelerates Chip Development," 20070424131605/, 2010.
[9] A. Vahdat and D. Becker, "Epidemic Routing for Partially-Connected Ad Hoc Networks," technical report, , 2000.
[10] L. Pelusi, A. Passarella, and M. Conti, "Opportunistic Networking: Data Forwarding in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 134-141, Nov. 2006.
[11] Y. Ding, C. Wang, and L. Xiao, "A Static-Node Assisted Adaptive Routing Protocol in Vehicular Networks," Proc. Fourth ACM Int'l Workshop Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET), Sept. 2007.
[12] J. Jeong, S. Guo, Y. Gu, T. He, and D. Du, "TBD: Trajectory-Based Data Forwarding for Light-Traffic Vehicular Networks," Proc. 29th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), June 2009.
[13] B. Hull, V. Bychkovsky, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, M. Goraczko, A. Miu, E. Shih, H. Balakrishnan, and S. Madden, "Cartel: A Distributed Mobile Sensor Computing System," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), Nov. 2006.
[14] General Motors (GM), "Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Communications," research/overview/islvcim.jsp, 2010.
[15] Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC), "TMC Develops Onboard DSRC Unit to Improve Traffic Safety," jp/en/news/09/090903.html , 2010.
[16] Garmin Ltd., "Garmin Traffic," traffic/, 2010.
[17] N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and O.K. Tonguz, "On the Routing Problem in Disconnected Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[18] V. Muchuruza and R. Mussa, "Traffic Operation and Safety Analyses of Minimum Speed Limits on Florida Rural Interstate Highways," Proc. Mid-Continent Transportation Research Symp., Aug. 2005.
[19] M. DeGroot and M. Schervish, Probability and Statistics, third ed., Addison-Wesley, 2001.
[20] T. Nadeem, S. Dashtinezhad, C. Liao, and L. Iftode, "TrafficView: Traffic Data Dissemination Using Car-to-Car Communication," ACM Mobile Computing and Communications Rev., Special Issue on Mobile Data Management, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 6-19, July 2004.
[21] L. Wischhof, A. Ebner, and H. Rohling, "Information Dissemination in Self-Organizing Intervehicle Networks," IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 90-101, Mar. 2005.
[22] E.M. Royer and C.K. Toh, "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks," IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 46-55, Apr. 1999.
[23] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, "A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research," Wireless Comm. and Mobility Computing, Special Issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Research, Trends and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 483-502, 2002.
[24] F. Bai, N. Sadagopan, and A. Helmy, "IMPORTANT: A Framework to Systematically Analyze the Impact of Mobility on Performance of Routing Protocols for Adhoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2003.
[25] D.S. Berry and D.M. Belmont, "Distribution of Vehicle Speeds and Travel Times," Proc. Second Berkeley Symp. Math. Statistics and Probability, 1951.
[26] H. Wu, R. Fujimoto, R. Guensler, and M. Hunter, "MDDV: A Mobility-Centric Data Dissemination Algorithm for Vehicular Networks," Proc. First ACM Int'l Workshop Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET), Oct. 2004.
[27] Y. Lee, H. Lee, N. Choi, Y. Choi, and T. Kwon, "Macro-level and Micro-level Routing (MMR) for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2007.
[28] H. Lee, Y. Lee, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, "Virtual Vertex Routing (VVR) for Course-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), Mar. 2007.
[29] P. Rodriguez, R. Chakravorty, J. Chesterfield, I. Pratt, and S. Banerjee, "MAR: A Commuter Router Infrastructure for the Mobile Internet," Proc. ACM MobiSys, June 2004.
[30] M. Abuelela, S. Olariu, and I. Stojmenović, "OPERA: Opportunistic Packet Relaying in Disconnected Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), Sept. 2008.

Index Terms:
Vehicular network, road network, data forwarding, trajectory, link delay, delivery delay.
Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong, Shuo Guo, Yu (Jason) Gu, Tian He, David H.C. Du, "Trajectory-Based Data Forwarding for Light-Traffic Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 743-757, May 2011, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2010.103
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.