Subscribe

Issue No.11 - November (2010 vol.21)

pp: 1611-1625

Dario Bruneo , University of Messina, Messina

Marco Scarpa , University of Messina, Messina

Antonio Puliafito , University of Messina, Messina

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TPDS.2010.35

ABSTRACT

Grid Computing supports the shared and coordinated use of several resources in dynamic Virtual Organizations. In the last few years, it is evolving into a business-innovating technology that is driving commercial adoption. Such a new scenario calls for powerful strategies able to guarantee stringent QoS requirements in order to meet Service Level Agreements (SLAs) between customers and providers. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze and predict performance with respect to different load conditions or management strategies. In this paper, we present a methodology to analyze performance in gLite Grids through the use of Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs). We introduce a cluster-level model of a typical gLite site taking into account the coexistence between normal and MPI-based jobs. We investigate the influence of different strategies (e.g., scheduling) on the performance of the whole site, highlighting aspects related to both customer and provider point of views. We also provide a business-oriented performance analysis introducing two different SLA typologies and highlighting how the site configuration may influence the expected profit of the service provider.

INDEX TERMS

Grid computing, gLite middleware, MPI-based jobs, generalized stochastic petri nets, performance measurements, service level agreement.

CITATION

Dario Bruneo, Marco Scarpa, Antonio Puliafito, "Performance Evaluation of gLite Grids through GSPNs",

*IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems*, vol.21, no. 11, pp. 1611-1625, November 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2010.35REFERENCES

- [1] I. Foster, C. Kesselman, and S. Tuecke, "The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations,"
Int'l J. High Performance Computing Applications, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 200-222, 2001.- [2] E. Kourpas, "Grid Computing: Past, Present and Future. An Innovation Perspective," technical report, IBM Corporation, 2006.
- [3] S.B. Lim, J. Kim, N.G. Kim, J.H. Lee, C. Kim, and Y. Kim, "A Grid Web Portal for Aerospace,"
Proc. Int'l Conf. Grid Computing and Applications (GCA '06), pp. 191-196, 2006.- [4] L. Behnke,
Automotive Solutions: Technology that Matters, Int'l Technical Support Organization, IBM RedPaper, May 2005.- [5] M. Herdon, P. Salga, B. Konya, and R. Szilagyi, "Thinking in Grid—Initiatives for Hungarian AgriGrid System,"
Proc. Fifth Conf. European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Food and Environment-Third World Congress on Computers in Agriculture and Natural Resources, July 2005.- [6] I. Schmerken, "Girding for Grid,"
Wall Street and Technology, online, no. 3, Apr. 2003.- [7] D. Bruneo, G. Iellamo, G. Minutoli, and A. Puliafito, "Gridvideo: A Practical Example of Non-Scientific Application on the Grid,"
IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 666-680, May 2009.- [8] A. Andrieux, K. Czajkowsky, A. Dan, K. Keahey, H. Ludwig, T. Nakata, J. Pruyne, J. Rofrano, S. Tuecke, and M. Xu, "Web Service Agreement Specification (WS-Agreement)," http://www.ogf.org /documentsgfd.107.pdf , 2007.
- [9] H. Li, "Performance Evaluation in Grid Computing: A Modeling and Prediction Perspective,"
Proc. Seventh IEEE Int'l Symp. Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid '07), pp. 869-874, 2007.- [10] Z. Nemeth, G. Gombas, and Z. Balaton, "Performance Evaluation on Grids: Directions, Issues, and Open Problems,"
Proc. 12th Euromicro Conf. Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing, pp. 290-297, 2004.- [11] K. Christodoulopoulos, V. Gkamas, and E.A. Varvarigos, "Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Jobs in a Grid Environment,"
J. Grid Computing, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 77-101, Mar. 2008.- [12] H. Li and M. Muskulus, "Analysis and Modeling of Job Arrivals in a Production Grid,"
ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Rev., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 59-70, Mar. 2007.- [13] The LCG Real Time Monitor, http://gridportal.hep.ph.ic.ac.ukrtm/, 2010.
- [14] Y.-S. Dai, G. Levitin, and K. Trivedi, "Performance and Reliability of Tree-Structured Grid Services Considering Data Dependence and Failure Correlation,"
IEEE Trans. Computer, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 925-936, July 2007.- [15] Y. Dai, Y. Pan, and X. Zou, "A Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Grid Service Reliability,"
IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 681-691, May 2007.- [16] S. Viswanathan, B. Veeravalli, and T.G. Robertazzi, "Resource-Aware Distributed Scheduling Strategies for Large-Scale Computational Cluster/Grid Systems,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1450-1461, Oct. 2007.- [17] A.A.B. Lu, L. Dowdy, F. Robinson, D. Hoffman, and D. Brewer, "A Case Study on Grid Performance Modeling,"
Proc. Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, 2006.- [18] R. Buyya and M. Murshed, "GridSim: A Toolkit for the Modeling and Simulation of Distributed Resource Management and Scheduling for Grid Computing,"
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 14, nos. 13-15, 2002.- [19] K. Singh, E. Ipek, S.A. McKee, B.R. de Supinski, M. Schulz, and R. Caruana, "Predicting Parallel Application Performance via Machine Learning Approaches,"
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 2219-2235, Dec. 2007.- [20] I. Raicu, C. Dumitrescu, M. Ripeanu, and I. Foster, "The Design, Performance, and Use of DiPerF: An Automated Distributed Performance Evaluation Framework,"
J. Grid Computing, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 287-309, Sept. 2006.- [21] M. Gerndt, "Automatic Performance Analysis Tools for the Grid,"
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 17, pp. 99-115, 2005.- [22] C. Petri, "Kommunikation Mit Automaten," PhD dissertation, Univ. of Bonn, 1962.
- [23] J.L. Peterson,
Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. Prentice Hall, 1981.- [24] S.M. Ross,
Stochastic Processes. John Wiley and Sons, 1983.- [25] M. Ajmone, G. Balbo, and G. Conte, "A Class of Generalized Petri Nets for the Performance Evaluation of Multiprocessor Systems,"
ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 2, pp. 93-122, 1984.- [26] R. Sahner, K.S. Trivedi, and A. Puliafito,
Performance and Reliability Analysis of Computer Systems: An Example Based Approach Using the SHARPE Software Package. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.- [27] The gLite Middleware, http://glite.web.cern.chglite/, 2010.
- [28] The Globus Project, http:/www.globus.org, 2010.
- [29] Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, http://lcg.web.cern.chLCG/, 2010.
- [30] R. Berlich, M. Kunze, and K. Schwarz, "Grid Computing in Europe: From Research to Deployment,"
Proc. Australasian Workshop Grid Computing and e-Research (AusGrid), pp. 21-27, 2005.- [31] D. Thain, T. Tannenbaum, and M. Livny, "Condor and the Grid,"
Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality, F. Berman, G. Fox, and T. Hey, eds., John Wiley and Sons, Dec. 2002.- [32] Sun N1 Grid Engine, http://sun.comgridware, 2010.
- [33] R. Raman, M. Livny, and M.H. Solomon, "Matchmaking: Distributed Resource Management for High Throughput Computing,"
Proc. Seventh IEEE Int'l Symp. High Performance Distributed Computing, pp. 28-31, July 1998.- [34] G. Balbo, G. Conte, S. Donatelli, G. Franceschinis, and M.A. Marsan,
Modelling with Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets. John Wiley and Sons, 1995.- [35] G. Ciardo, J. Muppala, and K.S. Trivedi, "SPNP: Stochastic Petri Net Package,"
Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Petri-Nets and Performance Models, pp. 142-151, 1989.- [36] G. Ciardo, G. Luttgen, and R. Siminiceanu, "Efficient Symbolic State-Space Construction for Asynchronous Systems,"
Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Applications and Theory of Petri Nets, pp. 103-122, 2000.- [37] G. Ciardo, R. Marmorstein, and R. Siminiceanu, "The Saturation Algorithm for Symbolic State Space Exploration,"
Int'l J. Software Tools for Technology Transfer, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 4-25, 2006.- [38] A.S. Miner and G. Ciardo, "Efficient Reachability Set Generation and Storage Using Decision Diagrams,"
Proc. 20th Int'l Conf. Application and Theory of Petri Nets 1999, pp. 6-25, 1999.- [39] V. Yarmolenko and R. Sakellariou, "An Evaluation of Heuristics for SLA Based Parallel Job Scheduling,"
Proc. 20th Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2006.- [40] M. Becker, N. Borrisov, N. Deora, O. Rana, and D. Neumann, "Using k-Pricing for Penalty Calculation in Grid Market,"
Proc. 41st Ann. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, pp. 97-106, 2008.- [41] O. Rana, M. Warnier, T.B. Quillinan, and F. Brazier, "Monitoring and Reputation Mechanisms for Service Level Agreements,"
Proc. Fifth Int'l Workshop Grid Economics and Business Models (GECON '08), pp. 125-139, Aug. 2008.- [42] R. Sakellariou and V. Yarmolenko, "Job Scheduling on the Grid: Towards SLA-Based Scheduling,"
High Performance Computing and Grids in Action, vol. 16, pp. 207-222, IOS Press, 2008. |