This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Stabilizing Distributed R-Trees for Peer-to-Peer Content Routing
August 2010 (vol. 21 no. 8)
pp. 1175-1187
Silvia Bianchi, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Pascal Felber, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Maria Gradinariu Potop-Butucaru, LIP6, INRIA-Université, Paris
Publish/subscribe systems provide useful platforms for delivering data (events) from publishers to subscribers in a decoupled fashion. Developing efficient publish/subscribe schemes in dynamic distributed systems is still an open problem for complex subscriptions (spanning multidimensional intervals). We propose a distributed R-tree (DR-tree) structure that uses R-tree-based spatial filters to construct a peer-to-peer overlay optimized for scalable and efficient selective dissemination of information. We adapt well-known variants of R-trees to organize publishers and subscribers in balanced peer-to-peer networks that support content-based filtering in publish/subscribe systems. DR-tree overlays guarantee subscription and publication times logarithmic in the size of the network while keeping space requirements low (comparable to distributed hash tables). The maintenance of the overlay is local and the structure is balanced with height logarithmic in the number of nodes. DR-tree overlays disseminate messages with no false negatives and very few false positives in the embedded publish/subscribe system. In addition, we propose self-stabilizing algorithms that guarantee consistency despite failures and changes in the peer population.

[1] M.K. Aguilera, R.E. Strom, D.C. Sturman, M. Astley, and T.D. Chandra, "Matching Events in a Content-Based Subscription System," Proc. Eighth ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '99), pp. 53-61, 1999.
[2] M. Altinel and M.J. Franklin, "Efficient Filtering of XML Documents for Selective Dissemination of Information," Proc. 26th Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases (VLDB '00), pp. 53-64, 2000.
[3] E. Anceaume, A.K. Datta, M. Gradinariu, G. Simon, and A. Virgillito, "A Semantic Overlay for Self-∗ Peer-to-Peer Publish Subscribe," Proc. 26th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2006.
[4] N. Beckmann, H. Kriegel, R. Schneider, and B. Seeger, "The R∗-Tree: An Efficient and Robust Access Method for Points and Rectangles," Proc. ACM SIGMOD, pp. 322-331, 1990.
[5] A. Carzaniga, D.S. Rosenblum, and A.L. Wolf, "Design and Evaluation of a Wide Area Event Notification Service," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 332-383, 2001.
[6] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A.M. Kermarrec, and A. Rowston, "Scribe: A Large-Scale and Decentralized Application-Level Multicast Infrastructure," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1489-1499, Oct. 2002.
[7] C.-Y. Chan, W. Fan, P. Felber, M. Garofalakis, and R. Rastogi, "Tree Pattern Aggregation for Scalable XML Data Dissemination," Proc. 28th Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases (VLDB), 2002.
[8] C.-Y. Chan, P. Felber, M. Garofalakis, and R. Rastogi, "Efficient Filtering of XML Documents with XPath Expressions," VLDB J., special issue on XML, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 354-379, 2002.
[9] R. Chand and P. Felber, "Semantic Peer-to-Peer Overlays for Publish/Subscribe Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing (Euro-Par), 2005.
[10] P. Costa, M. Migliavacca, G.P. Picco, and G. Cugola, "Epidemic Algorithms for Reliable Content-Based Publish/Subscribe: An Evaluation," Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2004.
[11] A. Crainiceanu, P. Linga, J. Gehrke, and J. Shanmugasundaram, "Querying Peer-to-Peer Networks Using P-Trees," Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop the Web and Databases (WebDB '04), pp. 25-30, 2004.
[12] G. Cugola, E. Di Nitto, and A. Fugetta, "The JEDI Event-Based Infrastructure and Its Application to the Development of the OPSS WFMS," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 827-850, Sept. 2001.
[13] C. Delporte-Gallet, S. Devismes, and H. Fauconnier, "Robust Stabilizing Leader Election," Proc. Int'l Symp. Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS), pp. 219-233, 2007.
[14] Y. Diao, P. Fischer, M. Franklin, and R. To, "YFilter: Efficient and Scalable Filtering of XML Documents," Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), 2002.
[15] P.T. Eugster, P. Felber, R. Guerraoui, and A.M. Kermarrec, "The Many Faces of Publish/Subscribe," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 114-131, 2003.
[16] P. Gummadi, S. Saroiu, and S. Gribble, "A Measurement Study of Napster and Gnutella as Examples of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems," Multimedia Systems J., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 170-184, 2003.
[17] A. Gupta, O.D. Sahin, D. Agrawal, and A. El Abbadi, "Meghdoot: Content-Based Publish: Subscribe over P2P Networks," Proc. ACM/IFIP/USENIX Fifth Int'l Middleware Conf. (Middleware '04), 2004.
[18] A. Guttman, "R-Trees: A Dynamic Index Structure for Spatial Searching," Proc. ACM SIGMOD, pp. 47-57, 1984.
[19] D. Liben-Nowell, H. Balakrishnan, and D. Karger, "Analysis of the Evolution of Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. 21st ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2002.
[20] P. Maymounkov and D. Mazieres, "Kademlia: A Peer-to-Peer Information System Based on the xor Metric," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '02), pp. 53-65, 2002.
[21] S. Saroiu, P. Gummadi, and S. Gribble, "A Measurement Study of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems," Proc. Multimedia Computing and Networking, pp. 156-170, 2002.
[22] B. Segall, D. Arnold, J. Boot, M. Henderson, and T. Phelps, "Content Based Routing with Elvin4," Proc. Symp. Australian UNIX and Open Systems Users Group (AUUG2K), 2000.
[23] S. Voulgaris, E. Rivire, A. Kermarrec, and M. van Steen, "Sub-2-Sub: Self-Organizing Content-Based Publish Subscribe for Dynamic Large Scale Collaborative Networks," Proc. Fifth Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), 2006.
[24] S.Q. Zhuang, B.Y. Zhao, A.D. Joseph, R. Katz, and J. Kubiatowicz, "Bayeux: An Architecture for Scalable and Fault-Tolerant Wide Area Data Dissemination," Proc. Int'l Workshop Network and OS Support for Digital Audio and Video, 2001.

Index Terms:
Content-based routing, publish/subscribe, peer-to-peer, self-organization, stabilizing dynamic R-trees.
Citation:
Silvia Bianchi, Pascal Felber, Maria Gradinariu Potop-Butucaru, "Stabilizing Distributed R-Trees for Peer-to-Peer Content Routing," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1175-1187, Aug. 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.131
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.