Issue No.08 - August (2010 vol.21)
pp: 1103-1116
Hong Shen , University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei
Kam-Wing Ng , The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Reliability of tree-like multicast overlays caused by nodes' abrupt failures is considered as one of the major problems for the Internet application-layer media streaming service [CHECK END OF SENTENCE]. In this paper, we address this problem by designing a distributed and light-weighted protocol named the instantaneous reliability oriented protocol (IRP). Unlike most of existing empirical solutions, we first define the overlay reliability problem formally, and propose a protocol containing a node joining algorithm (IRP-Join), a node preemption algorithm (IRP-Preempt), and a node switching algorithm (IRP-Switch) for reactively constructing and repairing the overlay, as well as proactively maintaining the overlay. With the formal problem presentation, we set up a paradigm for solving the overlay reliability problem by theoretically proving the effectiveness of our algorithms. Moreover, by comparing IRP with existing solutions via simulation-based experiments and real-world deployment, we show that IRP achieves a better reliability, while incurs fewer structural adjustments on the multicast overlay, thus, providing a superior overall performance.
Reliability, multicast, algorithm/protocol design and analysis.
Hong Shen, Kam-Wing Ng, "Improving Reliability for Application-Layer Multicast Overlays", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.21, no. 8, pp. 1103-1116, August 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.166
[1] J. Liu, S.G. Rao, B. Li, and H. Zhang, "Opportunities and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Internet Video Broadcast," Proc. IEEE, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 11-24, Jan. 2008.
[2] A.G.Y. Chu, T.S.E. Ng, S.G. Rao, K. Sripanidkulchai, J. Zhan, and H. Zhang, "Early Experience with an Internet Broadcast System Based on Overlay Multicast," Proc. USENIX Conf. '04, June 2004.
[3] S. Banerjee, B. Bhattacharjee, and C. Kommareddy, "Scalable Application Layer Multicast," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '02, Aug. 2002.
[4] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A.M. Kermarrec, and A.I.T. Rowstron, "Scribe: A Large-Scale and Decentralized Application-Level Multicast Infrastructure," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1489-1499, Oct. 2002.
[5] D.A. Tran, K. Hua, and T. Do, "A Peer-to-Peer Architecture for Media Streaming," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 121 -133, Jan. 2004.
[6] V.N. Padmanabhan, H.J. Wang, and P.A. Chou, "Resilient Peer-to-Peer Streaming," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '03), Nov. 2003.
[7] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A.-M. Kermarrec, A. Nandi, A. Rowstron, and A. Singh, "SplitStream: High-Bandwidth Multicast in a Cooperative Environment," Proc. ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '03), Oct. 2003.
[8] V. Venkataraman, K. Yoshida, and P. Francis, "Chunkyspread: Heterogeneous Unstructured end System Multicast," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '06), Nov. 2006.
[9] X. Zhang, J. Liu, B. Li, and T.P. Yum, "CoolStreaming/DONet: A Data-Driven Overlay Network for Efficient Live Media Streaming," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
[10] N. Magharei and R. Rejaie, "PRIME: Peer-to-Peer Receiver-Driven Mesh-Based Streaming," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '07, May 2007.
[11] PPLive, http:/, 2010.
[12] D. Kostic, A. Rodriguez, J. Albrecht, and A. Vahdat, "Bullet: High Bandwidth Data Dissemination Using an Overlay Mesh," Proc. ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '03), Oct. 2003.
[13] F. Wang, Y. Xiong, and J. Liu, "mTreebone: A Hybrid Tree/Mesh Overlay for Application-Layer Live Video Multicast," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '07), June 2007.
[14] K. Sripanidkulchai, A. Ganjam, B. Maggs, and H. Zhang, "The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '04, Sept. 2004.
[15] M. Bishop, S. Rao, and K. Sripanidkulchai, "Considering Priority in Overlay Multicast Protocols under Heterogeneous Environments," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '06, Apr. 2006.
[16] G. Tan and S.A. Jarvis, "Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 721-734, June 2007.
[17] D. Kostic, A. Rodriguez, J. Albrecht, A. Bhirud, and A. Vahdat, "Using Random Subsets to Build Scalable Network Services," Proc. USENIX Symp. Internet Technologies and Systems (USITS '03), Mar. 2003.
[18] J. Liang and K. Nahrstedt, "RandPeer: Membership Management for Qos Sensitive Peer-to-Peer Applications," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '06, Apr. 2006.
[19] Y. Tian, D. Wu, G. Sun, and K.-W. Ng, "Improving Stability for Peer-to-Peer Multicast Overlays by Active Measurements," J. System Architecture, vol. 54, nos. 1/2, pp. 305-323, 2008.
[20] N. Magharei, R. Rejaie, and Y. Guo, "Mesh or Multiple-Tree: A Comparative Study of Live P2P Streaming Approaches," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '07, May 2007.
[21] A. Chakrabarti and G. Manimaran, "Reliability Constrained Routing in Qos Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 662-675, June 2005.
[22] S. Raghavan, G. Manimaran, and C.S.R. Murthy, "A Rearrangeable Algorithm for the Construction of Delay-Constrained Dynamic Multicast Trees," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 514-529, Aug. 1999.
[23] F. Bauer and A. Varma, "ARIES: A Rearrangeable Inexpensive Edge-Based On-Line Steiner Algorithm," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 514-529, Apr. 1997.
[24] S. Hong, H. Lee, and B.H. Park, "An Efficient Multicast Routing Algorithm for Delay-Sensitive Applications with Dynamic Membership," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '98, Mar. 1998.
[25] G. Iannaccone, C. Chuah, R. Mortier, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, "Analysis of Link Failures in an IP Backbone," Proc. Internet Measurement Workshop (IMW '02), Nov. 2002.
[26] K. Sripanidkulchai, B.M. Maggs, and H. Zhang, "An Analysis of Live Streaming Workloads on the Internet," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Measurement (IMC '04), Oct. 2004.
[27] E. Veloso, V. Almeida, W. Meira, A. Bestavros, and S. Jin, "A Hierarchical Characterization of a Live Streaming Media Workload," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 133-146, Feb. 2006.
[28] K.S. Trivedi, Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications. second ed. John Wiley and Sons, 2002.
[29] H. Yu, M. Kaminsky, P.B. Gibbons, and A. Flaxman, "SybilGuard: Defending against Sybil Attacks via Social Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '06, Sept. 2006.
[30] L. Peterson, T. Anderson, D. Culler, and T. Roscoe, "A Blueprint for Introducing Disruptive Technology into the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 59-64, 2003.
[31] E. Zegura, K. Calvert, and S. Bhattacharjee, "How to Model an Internetwork," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '96, Mar. 1996.
[32] A.B. Downey, "Lognormal and Pareto Distributions in the Internet," Computer Comm., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 790-801, 2004.