The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2010 vol.21)
pp: 658-671
Rong Ge , Marquette University, Milwaukee
Xizhou Feng , Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
Shuaiwen Song , Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
Hung-Ching Chang , Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
Dong Li , Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
Kirk W. Cameron , Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
Energy efficiency is a major concern in modern high-performance computing system design. In the past few years, there has been mounting evidence that power usage limits system scale and computing density, and thus, ultimately system performance. However, despite the impact of power and energy on the computer systems community, few studies provide insight to where and how power is consumed on high-performance systems and applications. In previous work, we designed a framework called PowerPack that was the first tool to isolate the power consumption of devices including disks, memory, NICs, and processors in a high-performance cluster and correlate these measurements to application functions. In this work, we extend our framework to support systems with multicore, multiprocessor-based nodes, and then provide in-depth analyses of the energy consumption of parallel applications on clusters of these systems. These analyses include the impacts of chip multiprocessing on power and energy efficiency, and its interaction with application executions. In addition, we use PowerPack to study the power dynamics and energy efficiencies of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) techniques on clusters. Our experiments reveal conclusively how intelligent DVFS scheduling can enhance system energy efficiency while maintaining performance.
Distributed system, CMP-based cluster, energy efficiency, power measurement, system tools, power management, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling.
Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Shuaiwen Song, Hung-Ching Chang, Dong Li, Kirk W. Cameron, "PowerPack: Energy Profiling and Analysis of High-Performance Systems and Applications", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.21, no. 5, pp. 658-671, May 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.76
[1] T.U.E.P. Agency, http://www.energystar.govindex.cfm? c=prod_development.server_efficiency_study , 2009.
[2] T.V. Authority, index.htm, 2005.
[3] A.M. Bailey, "Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI): Driving the Need for the Terascale Simulation Facility (TSF)," Proc. Energy Workshop and Exposition, 2002.
[4] D. Bailey et al., "The NAS Parallel Benchmarks 2.0," Technical Report #NAS-95-020, NASA Ames Research Center, 1995.
[5] F. Bellosa, "The Benefits of Event-Driven Energy Accounting in Power-Sensitive Systems," Proc. Ninth ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, 2000.
[6] D. Brooks, V. Tiwari, and M. Martonosi, "Wattch: A Framework for Architectural-Level Power Analysis and Optimizations," Proc. 27th Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, 2000.
[7] G. Chen, K. Malkowski, M. Kandemir, and P. Raghavan, "Reducing Power with Performance Contraints for Parallel Sparse Applications," Proc. First Workshop High-Performance, Power-Aware Computing, 2005.
[8] J. Chen, M. Dubois, and P. Stenstrom, "SimWattch: Integrating Complete-System and User-Level Performance and Power Simulators," IEEE Micro, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 34-48, July/Aug. 2007.
[9] S. Cho and R. Melhem, "Corollaries to Amdahl's Law for Energy," Computer Architecture Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 25-28. 2008.
[10] U. Congress, www.gpoaccess.govplaws/, 2006.
[11] N. Eisley, V. Soterious, and L.-S. Peh, "High-Level Power Analysis for Multi-Core Chips," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Compilers, Architecture and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASES), 2006.
[12] X. Feng, R. Ge, and K.W. Cameron, "Power and Energy Profiling of Scientific Applications on Distributed Systems," Proc. 19th IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2005.
[13] J. Flinn and M. Satyanarayanan, "Powerscope: A Tool for Profiling the Energy Usage of Mobile Applications," Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Mobile Computer Systems and Applications, 1999.
[14] J. Flinn and M. Satyanarayanan, "PowerScope: A Tool for Profiling the Energy Usage of Mobile Applications," Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Mobile Computer Systems and Applications, 1999.
[15] V.W. Freeh, D.K. Lowenthal, F. Pan, and N. Kappiah, "Using Multiple Energy Gears in MPI Programs on a Power-Scalable Cluster," Proc. 10th ACM Symp. Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP), 2005.
[16] V.W. Freeh et al., "Exploring the Energy-Time Tradeoff in MPI Programs," Proc. 19th IEEE/ACM Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2005.
[17] R. Ge and K.W. Cameron, "Power-Aware Speedup," Proc. IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2007.
[18] R. Ge, X. Feng, and K.W. Cameron, "Performance-Constrained Distributed DVS Scheduling for Scientific Applications on Power-Aware Clusters," Proc. ACM/IEEE Supercomputing (SC '05), p. 34, 2005.
[19] R. Ge, X. Feng, W.-C. Feng, and K.W. Cameron, "CPU MISER: A Performance-Directed, Run-Time System for Power-Aware Clusters," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP), 2007.
[20] S. Gurumurthi et al., "Using Complete Machine Simulation for Software Power Estimation: The SoftWatt Approach," Proc. Eighth Int'l Symp. High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 2002.
[21] S. Gurumurthi, A. Sivasubramaniam, M. Kandemir, and H. Franke, "DRPM: Dynamic Speed Control for Power Management in Server Class Disks," Proc. 30th Ann. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, 2003.
[22] C.-H. Hsu, "Compiler-Directed Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling for CPU Power and Energy Reduction," PhD dissertation, 2003.
[23] C.-H. Hsu and W.-C. Feng, "A Power-Aware Run-Time System for High-Performance Computing," Proc. ACM/IEEE Supercomputing (SC), 2005.
[24] Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation, "The SPEC Benchmark Suite," http:/, 2002.
[25] IBM PowerExecutive, management/ director/extensionspowerexec.html , 2007.
[26] IDC, Worldwide Server Power and Cooling Expense 2006-2010, 2006.
[27] C. Isci and M. Martonosi, "Runtime Power Monitoring in High-End Processors: Methodology and Empirical Data," Proc. 36th Ann. IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture (MICRO-36), 2003.
[28] H. Meuer, E. Strohmaier, J. Dongarra, and H. Simon, The TOP500 Supercomputer Sites, http:/, 2007.
[29] J. Janzen, "Calculating Memory System Power for DDR SDRAM," Micro Designline, vol. 10, no. 2, 2001.
[30] R. Joseph, D. Brooks, and M. Martonosi, "Live, Runtime Power Measurements as a Foundation for Evaluating Power/Performance Tradeoffs," Proc. Workshop Complexity-Effective Design, 2001.
[31] S. Kamil, J. Shalf, and E. Strohmaier, "Power Efficiency in High Performance Computing," Proc. Fourth High-Performance, Power-Aware Computing Workshop, 2008.
[32] LBNL, "Data Center Energy Benchmarking Case Study: Part 5— Case Studies on a Corporate Data Center," Prepared by Rumsey Engineers for Lawrence Berkeley Nat'l Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, p. 20, 2003.
[33] Mentor Graphics Corporation, 1999.
[34] Synopsys Corporation, Powermill Data Sheet, 1999.
[35] H.-S. Wang, X. Zhu, L.-S. Peh, and S. Malik, "Orion: A Power-Performance Simulator for Interconnection Networks," Proc. 35th Ann. IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 2002.
[36] W. Ye et al., "The Design and Use of Simplepower: A Cycle-Accurate Energy Estimation Tool," Proc. 37th Design Automation Conf., pp. 340-345, 2000.
[37] J. Zedlewski et al., "Modeling Hard-Disk Power Consumption," Proc. Second Conf. File and Storage Technologies, 2003.
34 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool