This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
mTreebone: A Collaborative Tree-Mesh Overlay Network for Multicast Video Streaming
March 2010 (vol. 21 no. 3)
pp. 379-392
Feng Wang, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby
Yongqiang Xiong, Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing
Jiangchuan Liu, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby
Recently, application-layer overlay networks have been suggested as a promising solution for live video streaming over the Internet. To organize a multicast overlay, a natural structure is a tree, which, however, is known vulnerable to end-hosts dynamics. Data-driven approaches address this problem by employing a mesh structure, which enables data exchanges among multiple neighbors, and thus, greatly improves the overlay resilience. It unfortunately suffers from an efficiency-delay trade-off, because data have to be pulled from mesh neighbors by using extra notifications periodically. In this paper, we closely examine the contributions of overlay nodes, and argue that performance of a mesh overlay closely depends on a small set of stable backbone nodes. This is validated through a real trace study on PPLive, the largest commercial application-layer live streaming system to date. Motivated by this observation, we then suggest a novel collaborative tree-mesh design that leverages both mesh and tree structures. The key idea is to identify a set of stable nodes to construct a tree-based backbone, called treebone, with most of the data being pushed over this backbone. These stable nodes, together with others, are further organized through an auxiliary mesh overlay, which facilitates the treebone to accommodate node dynamics and fully exploit the available bandwidth between overlay nodes. This hybrid design, referred to as mTreebone, brings a series of unique and critical design challenges. In particular, the identification of stable nodes and seamless data delivery using both push and pull methods. In this paper, we present optimized solutions to these problems, which reconcile the two overlays under a coherent framework with controlled overhead. We evaluate mTreebone through both simulations and PlanetLab experiments. The results demonstrate the superior efficiency and robustness of this hybrid solution in both static and dynamic scenarios.

[1] PlanetLab, http:/, 2009.
[2] PPLive, http:/, 2009.
[3] K.C. Almeroth and M.H. Ammar, "Collecting and Modeling the Join/Leave Behavior of Multicast Group Members in the MBone," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. High Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC), p. 209, Aug. 1996.
[4] S. Banerjee, B. Bhattacharjee, and C. Kommareddy, "Scalable Application Layer Multicast," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 205-220, Aug. 2002.
[5] M. Bishop, S. Rao, and K. Sripanidkulchai, "Considering Priority in Overlay Multicast Protocols under Heterogeneous Environments," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-13, Apr. 2006.
[6] T. Bonald, L. Massoulié, F. Mathieu, D. Perino, and A. Twigg, "Epidemic Live Streaming: Optimal Performance Trade Offs," Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, pp. 325-336, June 2008.
[7] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A. Kermarrec, A. Nandi, A. Rowstron, and A. Singh, "SplitStream: High-Bandwidth Multicast in Cooperative Environments," Proc. ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), pp. 298-313, Oct. 2003.
[8] Y. Chu, A. Ganjam, T.S.E. Ng, S.G. Rao, K. Sripanidkulchai, J. Zhan, and H. Zhang, "Early Experience with an Internet Broadcast System Based on Overlay Multicast," Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf., p. 12, June 2004.
[9] Y. Chu, S.G. Rao, and H. Zhang, "A Case for End System Multicast," Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, pp. 1-12, June 2000.
[10] S. Deering and D. Cheriton, "Multicast Routing in Datagram Internet-Works and Extended LANs," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 85-110, May 1990.
[11] A.J. Ganesh, A.M. Kermarrec, and L. Massoulie, "Peer-to-Peer Membership Management for Gossip-Based Protocols," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 139-149, Feb. 2003.
[12] P.B. Godfrey, S. Shenker, and I. Stoica, "Minimizing Churn in Distributed Systems," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 147-158, Sept. 2006.
[13] X. Hei, C. Liang, J. Liang, Y. Liu, and K. Ross, "Insights into PPLive: A Measurement Study of a Large-Scale P2P IPTV System," Proc. Workshop IPTV Services over World Wide Web, May 2006.
[14] D. Kostic, R. Braud, C. Killian, E. Vandekieft, J.W. Anderson, A.C. Snoeren, and A. Vahdat, "Maintaining High Bandwidth under Dynamic Network Conditions," Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf., p. 14, Apr. 2005.
[15] D. Kostic, A. Rodriguez, J. Albrecht, and A. Vahdat, "Bullet: High Bandwidth Data Dissemination Using an Overlay Mesh," Proc. ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), pp. 282-297, Oct. 2003.
[16] X. Liao, H. Jin, Y. Liu, L.M. Ni, and D. Deng, "AnySee: Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-10, Apr. 2006.
[17] J. Liu, S.G. Rao, B. Li, and H. Zhang, "Opportunities and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Internet Video Broadcast," Proc. IEEE, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 11-24, Jan. 2008.
[18] N. Magharei and R. Rejaie, "PRIME: Peer-to-Peer Receiver-drIven MEsh-Based Streaming," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1415-1423, May 2007.
[19] N. Magharei, R. Rejaie, and Y. Guo, "Mesh or Multiple-Tree: A Comparative Study of P2P Live Streaming Services," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1424-1432, May 2007.
[20] V.N. Padmanabhan, H.J. Wang, P.A. Chou, and K. Sripanid-kulchai, "Distributed Streaming Media Content Using Cooperative Networking," Proc. ACM Int'l Workshop Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), pp. 177-186, May 2002.
[21] V. Pai, K. Kumar, K. Tamilmani, V. Sambamurthy, and A.E. Mohr, "Chainsaw: Eliminating Trees from Overlay Multicast," Proc. Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), pp. 127-140, Feb. 2005.
[22] T. Small, B. Liang, and B. Li, "Scaling Laws and Tradeoffs in Peer-to-Peer Live Multimedia Streaming," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. MULTIMEDIA, pp. 539-548, Oct. 2006.
[23] K. Sripanidkulchai, B. Maggs, and H. Zhang, "An Analysis of Live Streaming Workloads on the Internet," Proc. ACM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), pp. 41-54, Oct. 2004.
[24] R. Tian, Q. Zhang, Z. Xiang, Y. Xiong, X. Li, and W. Zhu, "Robust and Efficient Path Diversity in Application-Layer Multicast for Video Streaming," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 961-972, Aug. 2005.
[25] D.A. Tran, K.A. Hua, and T. Do, "ZIGZAG: An Efficient Peer-to-Peer Scheme for Media Streaming," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 1283-1292, Mar. 2003.
[26] V. Venkataraman, P. Francis, and J. Calandrino, "Chunkyspread: Heterogeneous Unstructured Tree-Based Peer-to-Peer Multicast," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), pp. 2-11, Nov. 2006.
[27] F. Wang, Y. Xiong, and J. Liu, "mTreebone: A Hybrid Tree/Mesh Overlay for Application-Layer Live Video Multicast," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), p. 49, June 2007.
[28] M. Zhang, J.-G. Luo, L. Zhao, and S.-Q. Yang, "A Peer-to-Peer Network for Live Media Streaming—Using a Push-Pull Approach," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. MULTIMEDIA, pp. 287-290, Nov. 2005.
[29] M. Zhang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Yang, "Understanding the Power of Pull-Based Streaming Protocol: Can We Do Better?" IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1678-1694, Dec. 2007.
[30] X. Zhang, J. Liu, B. Li, and T.P. Yum, "CoolStreaming/DONet: A Data-Driven Overlay Network for Efficient Live Media Streaming," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 2102-2111, Mar. 2005.

Index Terms:
Application-layer multicast, overlay network, mesh, tree, live streaming.
Feng Wang, Yongqiang Xiong, Jiangchuan Liu, "mTreebone: A Collaborative Tree-Mesh Overlay Network for Multicast Video Streaming," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 379-392, March 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.77
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.