The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.12 - December (2009 vol.20)
pp: 1816-1829
Xiaowen Chu , Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Kaiyong Zhao , Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Zongpeng Li , University of Calgary, Calgary
Anirban Mahanti , NICTA, Sydney
ABSTRACT
Realizing on-demand media streaming in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) fashion is more challenging than in the case of live media streaming, since only peers with close-by media play progresses may help each other in obtaining the media content. The situation is further complicated if we wish to pursue low aggregated link cost in the transmission. In this paper, we present a new algorithmic perspective toward on-demand P2P streaming protocol design. While previous approaches employ streaming trees or passive neighbor reconciliation for media content distribution, we instead coordinate the streaming session as an auction where each peer participates locally by bidding for and selling media flows encoded with network coding. We show that this auction approach is promising in achieving low-cost on-demand streaming in a scalable fashion. It is amenable to asynchronous, distributed, and lightweight implementations, and is flexible to provide support for random-seek and pause functionalities. Through extensive simulation studies, we verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed auction approach, focusing on the optimality in overall streaming cost, the convergence speed, and the communication overhead.
INDEX TERMS
Communication/networking and information technology, computer systems organization. multicast, Internet working, design studies, performance of systems, media streaming, overlay networks, auction algorithms.
CITATION
Xiaowen Chu, Kaiyong Zhao, Zongpeng Li, Anirban Mahanti, "Auction-Based On-Demand P2P Min-Cost Media Streaming with Network Coding", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.20, no. 12, pp. 1816-1829, December 2009, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.40
REFERENCES
[1] R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.R. Li, and R.W. Yeung, “Network Information Flow,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1204-1216, July 2000.
[2] R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice Hall, 1993.
[3] J. Almeida, D. Eager, M. Ferris, and M. Vernon, “Provisioning Content Distribution Networks for Streaming Media,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, June 2002.
[4] S. Banerjee, B. Bhattacharjee, and C. Kommareddy, “Scalable Application Layer Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 205-217, Aug. 2002.
[5] D. Bertsekas, “The Auction Algorithm for Shortest Paths,” SIAM J. Optimization, vol. 1, pp. 425-447, 1991.
[6] D. Bertsekas, Network Optimization: Continuous and Discrete Models. Athena Scientific, 1998.
[7] D. Bertsekas, “A Distributed Algorithm for the Assignment Problem,” technical report, Lab for Information and Decision Systems, Mass. Inst. of Tech nology, Mar. 1979.
[8] D. Bertsekas and D. Castanon, “The Auction Algorithm for Transportation Problems,” Annals of Operations Research, vol. 20, pp. 67-96, 1989.
[9] Y. Cai, K. Hua, and K. Vu, “Optimized Patching Performance,” Proc. Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN) Conf., Jan. 1999.
[10] S. Carter and D. Long, “Improving Video-on-Demand Server Efficiency through Stream Tapping,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN), Sept. 1997.
[11] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A. Kermarrec, A. Nandi, A. Rowstron, and A. Singh, “SplitStream: High-Bandwidth Content Distribution in Cooperative Environments,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), Feb. 2003.
[12] Y. Chawathe, S. McCanne, and E. Brewer, “RMX: Reliable Multicast for Heterogeneous Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2000.
[13] P. Chou, Y. Wu, and K. Jain, “Practical Network Coding,” Proc. Allerton Conf., Oct. 2003.
[14] X. Chu, K. Zhao, and M. Wang, “Massively Parallel Network Coding on GPUs,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Performance Computing and Comm. Conf. (IPCCC), Dec. 2008.
[15] Y. Chu, S. Rao, S. Seshan, and H. Zhang, “Enabling Conferencing Applications on the Internet Using an Overlay Muilticast Architecture,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2001.
[16] Y. Chu, S. Rao, and H. Zhang, “A Case for End System Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, June 2000.
[17] D. Coppersmith and S. Winograd, “Matrix Multiplication via Arithmetic Progressions,” J. Symbolic Computation, vol. 9, pp. 251-280, 1990.
[18] C. Diot, B. Levine, B. Lyles, H. Kassem, and D. Balensiefen, “Deployment Issues for the IP Multicast Service and Architecture,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 78-88, Jan. 2000.
[19] T. Do, K. Hua, and M. Tantaoui, “P2VoD: Providing Fault Tolerant Video-on-Demand Streaming in Peer-to-Peer Environment,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC), June 2004.
[20] D. Eager, M. Vernon, and J. Zahorjan, “Minimizing Bandwidth Requirements for On-Demand Data Delivery,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 742-757, Sept./Oct. 2001.
[21] C. Fragouli, J.-Y.L. Boudec, and J. Widmer, “Network Coding: An Instant Primer,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 63-68, 2006.
[22] C. Gkantsidis and P.R. Rodriguez, “Network Coding for Large Scale Content Distribution,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[23] Y. Guo, K. Suh, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “P2Cast: Peer-to-Peer Patching Solutions for VoD Service,” Proc. Int'l World Wide Web Conf. (WWW), May 2003.
[24] X. Hei, C. Liang, J. Liang, Y. Liu, and K.W. Ross, “A Measurement Study of a Large-Scale P2P IPTV System,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1672-1687, Dec. 2007.
[25] T. Ho, B. Leong, R. Koetter, and M. Médard, “Distributed Asynchronous Algorithms for Multicast Network Coding,” Proc. First Workshop Network Coding, Apr. 2005.
[26] T. Ho, M. Médard, and R. Koetter, “An Information Theoretic View of Network Coding,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2003.
[27] T. Ho, M. Médard, J. Shi, M. Effros, and D. Karger, “On Randomized Network Coding,” Proc. Allerton Conf., Oct. 2003.
[28] A. Hu, “Video-on-Demand Broadcasting Protocols: A Comprehensive Study,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2001.
[29] Y. Huang, T. Fu, D. Chiu, C. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, Design and Analysis of a Large-Scale P2P-VoD System,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2008.
[30] S. Jaggi, P. Sanders, P.A. Chou, M. Effros, S. Egner, K. Jain, and L.M.G. Tolhuizen, “Polynomial Time Algorithms for Multicast Network Code Construction,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1973-1982, June 2005.
[31] J. Jannotti, D. Gifford, and K. Johnson, “Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network,” Proc. Symp. Operating System Design and Implementation (OSDI), Oct. 2000.
[32] S. Li, R. Yeung, and N. Cai, “Linear Network Coding,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 371-381, Feb. 2003.
[33] Z. Li and B. Li, “Efficient and Distributed Computation of Maximum Multicast Rates,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[34] Z. Li, B. Li, D. Jiang, and L.C. Lau, “On Achieving Optimal Throughput with Network Coding,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[35] J. Liu, J. Xu, and X. Chu, “Fine-Grained Scalable Video Caching for Heterogeneous Clients,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 8, no. 5, pp.1011-1020, Oct. 2006.
[36] D. Lun, N. Ratnakar, R. Koetter, M. Médard, E. Ahmed, and H. Lee, “Achieving Minimum-Cost Multicast: A Decentralized Approach Based on Network Coding,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[37] A. Mahanti, D. Eager, M. Vernon, and D. Sundaram-Stukel, “Scalable On-Demand Media Streaming with Packet Loss Recovery,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 195-209, Apr. 2003.
[38] L. Mathy, R. Canonico, and D. Hutchison, “An Overlay Tree Building Control Protocol,” Proc. COST264 Workshop Networked Group Comm., Nov. 2001.
[39] V. Padmanabhan, H. Wang, and P. Chou, “Resilient Peer-to-Peer Streaming,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), Nov. 2003.
[40] V. Padmanabhan, H. Wang, P. Chou, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Distributing Streaming Media Content Using Cooperative Networking,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), May 2002.
[41] K.N. Parvez, C. Williamson, A. Mahanti, and N. Carlsson, “Analysis of BitTorrent-Like Protocols for On-Demand Stored Media Streaming,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, June 2008.
[42] D. Pendakaris and S. Shi, “ALMI: An Application Level Multicast Infrastructure,” Proc. USENIX Symp. Internet Technologies and Systems, Mar. 2001.
[43] A. Schrijver, Combinatorial Optimization: Polyhera and Efficiency, Springer, 2003.
[44] D. Tran, K. Hua, and T. Do, “A Peer-to-Peer Architecture for Media Streaming,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 121-133, Jan. 2004.
[45] M. Wang and B. Li, “How Practical Is Network Coding,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS), 2006.
[46] M. Wang, Z. Li, and B. Li, “A High Throughput Overlay Multicast Infrastructure with Network Coding,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS), June 2005.
[47] D. West, Introduction To Graph Theory, second ed., Prentice Hall, 2001.
[48] D. Xu, M. Hefeeda, S. Hambrusch, and B. Bhargava, “On Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), July 2003.
[49] R.W. Yeung, S.-Y.R. Li, N. Cai, and Z. Zhang, “Theory of Network Coding,” Foundations and Trends in Comm. and Information Theory, 2005.
[50] A. Young, J. Chen, Z. Ma, A. Krishnamurthy, L.L. Peterson, and R. Wang, “Overlay Mesh Construction Using Interleaved Spanning Trees,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.
[51] B. Zhang, S. Jamin, and L. Zhang, “Host Multicast: A Framework for Delivering Multicast to End Users,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, June 2002.
[52] X. Zhang, J. Liu, and T. Yum, “CoolStreaming/DONet: A Data-Driven Overlay Network for Peer-to-Peer Live Media Streaming,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool