This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Faithful Distributed Mechanism for Sharing the Cost of Multicast Transmissions
August 2009 (vol. 20 no. 8)
pp. 1089-1101
Nandan Garg, Wayne State University, Detroit
Daniel Grosu, Wayne State University, Detroit
The problem of sharing the cost of multicast transmissions was studied in the past, and two mechanisms, Marginal Cost (MC) and Shapley Value (SH), were proposed to solve it. Although both of them are strategyproof mechanisms, the distributed protocols implementing them are susceptible to manipulation by autonomous nodes. We propose a distributed Shapley Value mechanism in which the participating nodes do not have incentives to deviate from the mechanism specifications. We show that the proposed mechanism is a faithful implementation of the Shapley Value mechanism. We experimentally investigate the performance of the existing and the proposed cost-sharing mechanisms by implementing and deploying them on PlanetLab. We compare the execution time of MC and SH mechanisms for the Tamper-Proof and Autonomous Node models. We also study the convergence and scalability of the mechanisms by varying the number of nodes and the number of users per node. We show that the MC mechanisms generate a smaller revenue compared to the SH mechanisms, and thus, they are not attractive to the content provider. We also show that increasing the number of users per node is beneficial for the systems implementing the SH mechanisms from both computational and economic perspectives.

[1] A. Dan, D. Sitaram, and P. Shahabuddin, “Scheduling Policies for an On-Demand Video Server with Batching,” Proc. Second ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA '94), pp. 15-23, Oct. 1994.
[2] V.O.K. Li and Z. Zaichen, “Internet Multicast Routing and Transport Control Protocols,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 90, no. 3, pp.360-391, 2002.
[3] K.C. Almeroth and M.H. Ammar, “The Use of Multicast Delivery to Provide a Scalable and Interactive Video-on-Demand Service,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1110-1122, 1996.
[4] K. Sripanidkulchai, B. Maggs, and H. Zhang, “An Analysis of Live Streaming Workloads on the Internet,” Proc. Fourth ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Measurement (IMC '04), pp. 41-54, Oct. 2004.
[5] G. Tan and S.A. Jarvis, “Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 721-734, June 2007.
[6] P. Van Mieghem, G. Hooghiemstra, and R. van der Hofstad, “On the Efficiency of Multicast,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 719-732, 2001.
[7] V.P. Kompella, J.C. Pasquale, and G.C. Polyzos, “Multicast Routing for Multimedia Communication,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 286-292, 1993.
[8] D. Dolev, O. Mokryn, and Y. Shavitt, “On Multicast Trees: Structure and Size Estimation,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 557-567, 2006.
[9] S. Banerjee, B. Bhattacharjee, and C. Kommareddy, “Scalable Application Layer Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '02, pp.205-217, Aug. 2002.
[10] J. Jannotti, D.K. Gifford, K.L. Johnson, M.F. Kaashoek, and J.W. O'Toole, Jr., “Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network,” Proc.Fourth Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '00), pp. 197-212, Oct. 2000.
[11] Y.-H. Chu, S.G. Rao, and H. Zhang, “A Case for End System Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS '00, pp. 1-12, June 2000.
[12] S. Ratnasamy, M. Handley, R. Karp, and S. Shenker, “Topologically-Aware Overlay Construction and Server Selection,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '02, vol. 3, pp. 1190-1199, June 2002.
[13] N. Laoutaris, G. Smaragdakis, K. Oikonomou, I. Stavrakakis, and A. Bestavros, “Distributed Placement of Service Facilities in Large-Scale Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '07, pp. 2144-2152, May 2007.
[14] S. Deering and D.R. Cheriton, “Multicast Routing in Datagram Internetworks and Extended LANs,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 85-110, 1990.
[15] C. Yi, X. Yuan, and K. Nahrstedt, “Optimal Resource Allocation in Overlay Multicast,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 808-823, Aug. 2006.
[16] C. Huang, J. Li, and K.W. Ross, “Can Internet Video-on-Demand Be Profitable?” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '07, pp. 2144-2152, May 2007.
[17] N. Nisan and A. Ronen, “Algorithmic Mechanism Design,” Games and Economic Behaviour, vol. 35, nos. 1/2, pp. 166-196, Apr. 2001.
[18] J. Feigenbaum and S. Shenker, “Distributed Algorithmic Mechanism Design: Recent Results and Future Directions,” Proc. Sixth ACM Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm. (DIALM '02), pp. 1-13, Sept. 2002.
[19] A. Mas-Colell, M.D. Whinston, and J.R. Green, Microeconomic Theory. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995.
[20] J. Feigenbaum, C. Papadimitriou, and S. Shenker, “Sharing the Cost of Multicast Transmissions,” J. Computer and System Sciences, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 21-41, Aug. 2001.
[21] H. Moulin and S. Shenker, “Strategyproof Sharing of Submodular Costs: Budget Balance versus Efficiency,” J. Economic Theory, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 511-533, 2001.
[22] J. Green, E. Kohlberg, and J. Laffont, “Partial Equilibrium Approach to the Free-Rider Problem,” J. Public Economics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 375-394, 1976.
[23] J. Feigenbaum, A. Krishnamurthy, R. Sami, and S. Shenker, “Approximation and Collusion in Multicast Cost Sharing,” Proc. Fourth ACM Conf. Electronic Commerce (EC '03), p. 280, June 2003.
[24] J. Feigenbaum, A. Krishnamurthy, R. Sami, and S. Shenker, “Hardness Results for Multicast Cost Sharing,” Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 304, nos. 1-3, pp. 215-236, 2003.
[25] J. Shneidman and D.C. Parkes, “Specification Faithfulness in Networks with Rational Nodes,” Proc. 23rd Ann. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '04), pp. 88-97, July 2004.
[26] L. Lao, J.H. Cui, M. Gerla, and S. Chen, “A Scalable Overlay Multicast Architecture for Large-Scale Applications,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 449-459, Apr. 2007.
[27] S. Banerjee, C. Kommareddy, K. Kar, B. Bhattacharjee, and S. Khuller, “Omni: An Efficient Overlay Multicast Infrastructure for Real-Time Applications,” Computer Networks, vol. 50, no. 6, pp.826-841, 2006.
[28] Y. Chawathe, “Scattercast: An Adaptable Broadcast Distribution Framework,” Multimedia Systems, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 104-118, 2003.
[29] E.I. Lin, A.M. Eskicioglu, R.L. Lagendijk, and E.J. Delp, “Advances in Digital Video Content Protection,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 1, pp.171-183, 2005.
[30] S. Rafaeli and D. Hutchison, “A Survey of Key Management for Secure Group Communication,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 309-329, 2003.
[31] S. Deering, D.L. Estrin, D. Farinacci, V. Jacobson, L. Ching-Gung, and W. Liming, “The PIM Architecture for Wide-Area Multicast Routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 153-162, 1996.
[32] T.E. Carroll and D. Grosu, “Distributed Algorithmic Mechanism Design for Scheduling on Unrelated Machines,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Symp. Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks (I-SPAN '05), pp. 194-199, Dec. 2005.
[33] T.E. Carroll and D. Grosu, “A Strategyproof Mechanism for Scheduling Divisible Loads in Tree Networks,” Proc. 20th IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '06), Apr. 2006.
[34] J. Shneidman, D.C. Parkes, and L. Massoulie, “Faithfulness in Internet Algorithms,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Practice and Theory of Incentives in Networked Systems (PINS '04), pp. 220-227, Sept. 2004.
[35] S. Shakkottai and R. Srikant, “Economics of Network Pricing with Multiple ISPs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1233-1245, 2006.
[36] J. MacKie-Mason and H. Varian Pricing the Internet, Public Access to the Internet, pp. 269-314. MIT Press, 1995.
[37] S. Herzog, S. Shenker, and D. Estrin, “Sharing the “Cost” of Multicast Trees: An Axiomatic Analysis,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 847-860, 1997.
[38] J. Mitchell and V. Teague, “Autonomous Nodes and Distributed Mechanisms,” Software Security—Theories and Systems. Mext-NSF-JSPS Int'l Symp. (ISSS '02), pp. 58-83, 2003.
[39] S. Gorinsky, S. Jain, H. Vin, and Z. Yongguang, “Design of Multicast Protocols Robust against Inflated Subscription,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 249-262, 2006.
[40] PlanetLab, http:/www.planet-lab.org, 2008.
[41] S. Siachalou and L. Georgiadis, “Algorithms for Precomputing Constrained Widest Paths and Multicast Trees,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1174-1187, 2005.
[42] S. Ramanathan, “Multicast Tree Generation in Networks with Asymmetric Links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 4, no. 4, pp.558-568, 1996.
[43] L.S. Shapley, “A Value for N-Person Games,” Contribution to the Theory of Games, vol. 2, Princeton Univ. Press, pp. 31-40, 1953.
[44] OpenSSL, http:/www.openssl.org, 2008.
[45] N. Garg and D. Grosu, “Faithful Distributed Shapley Mechanisms for Sharing the Cost of Multicast Transmissions,” Proc. 12th IEEE Symp. Computers and Comm. (ISCC '07), pp. 741-747, July 2007.
[46] N. Garg and D. Grosu, “Performance Evaluation of Multicast Cost Sharing Mechanisms,” Proc. 21st IEEE Int'l Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA '07), pp. 901-908, May 2007.

Index Terms:
Multicast, cost sharing, faithful implementation, algorithmic mechanism design.
Citation:
Nandan Garg, Daniel Grosu, "A Faithful Distributed Mechanism for Sharing the Cost of Multicast Transmissions," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1089-1101, Aug. 2009, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2008.221
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.