This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Adaptive Reputation-Based Scheduling on Unreliable Distributed Infrastructures
November 2007 (vol. 18 no. 11)
pp. 1551-1564
This paper addresses the inherent unreliability and instability of worker nodes in large-scale donationbased distributed infrastructures such as P2P and Grid systems. We present adaptive scheduling techniques that can mitigate this uncertainty and significantly outperform current approaches. In this work, we consider nodes that execute tasks via donated computational resources and may behave erratically or maliciously. We present a model in which reliability is not a binary property but a statistical one based on a node’s prior performance and behavior. We use this model to construct several reputationbased scheduling algorithms that employ estimated reliability ratings of worker nodes for efficient task allocation. Our scheduling algorithms are designed to adapt to changing system conditions as well as non-stationary node reliability. Through simulation we demonstrate that our algorithms can significantly improve throughput, while maintaining a very high success rate of task completion. Our results suggest that reputation-based scheduling can handle wide variety of worker populations, including non-stationary behavior, with overhead that scales well with system size. We also show that our adaptation mechanism allows the application designer fine-grain control over desired performance metrics.

[1] Sun Grid, http://www.sun.com/servicesungrid/, 2007.
[2] B. Chun, D. Culler, T. Roscoe, A. Bavier, L. Peterson, M. Wawrzoniak, and M. Bowman, “PlanetLab: An Overlay Testbed for Broad-Coverage Services,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 3-12, July 2003.
[3] Condor Project, http://www.cs.wisc.educondor/, 2007.
[4] D. Anderson, “BOINC: A System for Public-Resource Computing and Storage,” Proc. Fifth ACM/IEEE Int'l Workshop Grid Computing (Grid '04), 2004.
[5] A. Chien, S. Pakin, M. Lauria, M. Buchanan, K. Hane, L. Giannini, and J. Prusakova, “Entropia: Architecture and Performance of an Enterprise Desktop Grid System,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 597-610, 2003.
[6] D. Anderson, J. Cobb, E. Korpela, M. Lebofsky, and D. Werthimer, “SETI@home: An Experiment in Public-Resource Computing,” Comm. ACM, vol. 45, no. 11, 2002.
[7] D. Molnar, “The SETI@Home Problem,” ACM Crossroads, Sept. 2000.
[8] P. Shread, Gateway Offers Computing on Demand, http://www.grid computingplanet.com/news/ article.php3281_1555061, 2002.
[9] J. Sonnek and J. Weissman, “A Quantitative Comparison of Reputation Systems in the Grid,” Proc. Sixth ACM/IEEE Int'l Workshop Grid Computing (Grid '05), 2005.
[10] S. Lee, R. Sherwood, and B. Bhattacharjee, “Cooperative Peer Groups in Nice,” Proc. INFOCOM '03, 2003.
[11] E. Damiani, S.D.C. di Vimercati, S. Paraboschi, P. Samarati, and F. Violante, “A Reputation-Based Approach for Choosing Reliable Resources in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. Ninth ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '02), pp. 207-216, Nov. 2002.
[12] S. Kamvar, M. Schlosser, and H. Garcia-Molina, “The EigenTrust Algorithm for Reputation Management in P2P Networks,” Proc. 12th Int'l World Wide Web Conf. (WWW '03), 2003.
[13] B. Alunkal, I. Veljkovic, G. von Laszewski, and K. Amin, “Reputation-Based Grid Resource Selection,” Proc. Workshop Adaptive Grid Middleware (AGridM '03), 2003.
[14] F. Azzedin and M. Maheswaran, “Integrating Trust into Grid Resource Management Systems,” Proc. 31st Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP '02), 2002.
[15] R. Zhao and K. Hwang, “PowerTrust: A Robust and Scalable Reputation System for Trusted Peer-to-Peer Computing,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 5, May 2007.
[16] Grid2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, I. Foster and C.Kesselman, eds. Morgan Kauffman, 2004.
[17] Folding@home Distributing Computing Project, http:/folding. stanford.edu, 2007.
[18] V. Lo, D. Zappala, D. Zhou, Y. Liu, and S. Zhao, “Cluster Computing on the Fly: P2P Scheduling of Idle Cycles in the Internet,” Proc. Fourth IEEE Int'l Conf. Peer-to-Peer Systems (P2P'04), 2004.
[19] A. Awan, R. Ferreira, S. Jagannathan, and A. Grama, “Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks for Sharing Processor Cycles,” J.Parallel Computing, 2005.
[20] M. Castro and B. Liskov, “Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance,” Proc. Third Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '99), Feb. 1999.
[21] P. Golle and I. Mironov, “Uncheatable Distributed Computations,” Proc. Cryptographer's Track at RSA Conf. (CT-RSA '01), Apr. 2001.
[22] L.F.G. Sarmenta, “Sabotage-Tolerance Mechanisms for Volunteer Computing Systems,” Proc. First ACM/IEEE Int'l Symp. Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid '01), 2001.
[23] S. Zhao and V. Lo, “Result Verification and Trust-Based Scheduling in Open Peer-to-Peer Cycle Sharing Systems,” Proc. Fifth IEEE Int'l Conf. Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P '05), Sept. 2005.
[24] P. Resnick, R. Zeckhauser, E. Friedman, and K. Kuwabara, “Reputation Systems,” Comm. ACM, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 45-48, 2000.
[25] K. Aberer and Z. Despotovic, “Managing Trust in a Peer-2-Peer Information System,” Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management, 2001.
[26] S. Song, K. Hwang, and Y. Kwok, “Risk-Resilient Heuristics and Genetic Algorithms for Security-Assured Grid Job Scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 703-719, 2006.
[27] R. Gupta and A. Somani, “CompuP2P: An Architecture for Sharing of Compute Power in Peer-to-Peer Networks with Selfish Nodes,” Proc. Second Workshop Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, 2004.
[28] K. Anagnostakis and M. Greenwald, “Exchange-Based Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer File Sharing,” Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '04), 2004.
[29] B. Chun, Y. Fu, and A. Vahdat, “Bootstrapping a Distributed Computational Economy with Peer-to-Peer Bartering,” Proc. First Workshop Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, 2003.
[30] W. Du, J. Jia, M. Mangal, and M. Murugesan, “Uncheatable Grid Computing,” Proc. 24th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '04), pp. 4-11, Mar. 2004.
[31] P. Golle and S.G. Stubblebine, “Secure Distributed Computing in a Commercial Environment,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Financial Cryptography, pp. 289-304, Feb. 2002.
[32] J. Sonnek, M. Nathan, A. Chandra, and J. Weissman, “Reputation-Based Scheduling on Unreliable Distributed Infrastructures,” Technical Report 05-036, Dept. Computer Science and Eng. (CSE), Univ. of Minnesota, Nov. 2005.
[33] T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. John Wiley & Sons, 1991.
[34] A. Charnes and W. Cooper, “Goal Programming and Multiple Objective Optimization—Part I,” European J. Operational Research, vol. 1, pp. 39-54, 1977.
[35] R.E. Steuer, Multiple Criteria Optimization: Theory, Computation and Application. John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

Index Terms:
Distributed Scheduling, Reputation, Reliability, Adaptive, Grids
Citation:
Jason Sonnek, Abhishek Chandra, Jon Weissman, "Adaptive Reputation-Based Scheduling on Unreliable Distributed Infrastructures," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1551-1564, Nov. 2007, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2007.1094
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.