This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
ReDAL: An Efficient and Practical Request Distribution Technique for Application Server Clusters
November 2007 (vol. 18 no. 11)
pp. 1516-1528
Modern web-based application infrastructures are based on clustered, multi-tiered architectures, where request distribution occurs in two sequential stages: over a cluster of web servers, and over a cluster of application servers. Much work has focused on strategies for distributing requests across a web server cluster in order to improve the overall throughput across the cluster. The strategies applied at the application layer are the same as those at the web server layer, because itis assumed that they transfer directly.In this paper, we argue that the problem of distributing requests across an application server cluster is fundamentally different from the web server request distribution problem, due to core differences in request processing in web and application servers. We devise an approach for distributing requests across a cluster of application servers such that overall system throughput is enhanced, and load across the application servers is balanced.

[1] K. Ueno, T. Alcott, J. Blight, J. Dekelver, D. Julin, C. Pfannkuch, and T. Shieh, WebSphere Scalability: WLM and Clustering, Using WebSphere Application Server Advanced Edition (IBM Redbook). IBM Int'l Technical Support Organization, Sept. 2000.
[2] S. Hwang and N. Jung, “Dynamic Scheduling of Web Server Cluster,” Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computer Systems (ICPADS '02), 2002.
[3] Cisco, LocalDirector, www.cisco.com, 2007.
[4] F5-Networks, BIG-IP, www.f5.com, 2007.
[5] Linux Virtual Server Project, Linux virtual server, www.linux virtualserver.org, 2007.
[6] Oracle 10g database server, Oracle, Inc. http:/www.oracle.com, 2007.
[7] WebSphere, IBM, http:/www.ibm.com, 2007.
[8] V. Pai, M. Aron, G. Banga, M. Svendsen, P. Druschel, W. Zwaenepoel, and E. Nahum, “Locality-Aware Request Distribution in Cluster-Based Network Servers,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '98), 1998.
[9] H. Elmeleegy, N. Adly, and M. Nagi, “Adaptive Cache-Driven Request Distribution in Clustered EJB Systems,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS '04), pp. 179-186, July 2004.
[10] Weblogic server v7.1, BEA, Inc., http:/www.bea.com, 2007.
[11] M. Colajanni, P. Yu, and D. Dias, “Scheduling Algorithms for Distributed Web Servers,” Proc. 17th Intl' Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '97), pp. 169-176, May 1997.
[12] R. Levy, J. Nagarajarao, G. Pacifici, M. Spreitzer, A. Tantawi, and A. Youssef, “Performance Management for Cluster Based Web Services,” Proc. Eighth IFIP/IEEE Int'l Symp. Integrated Network Management (IM '03), pp. 247-261, Mar. 2003.
[13] A. Tannenbaum, Modern Operating Systems. Prentice Hall, 2001.
[14] V. Viswanathan, Load Balancing Web Applications, p. 1, http://www.onjava.com/pub/a/onjava/2001/ 09/26load.html?, Sept. 2001.
[15] The Effects of Distributing Load Randomly to Servers, white paper, Cisco, 1997.
[16] J. Heer, “Mining the Structure of User Activity Using Cluster Stability,” Proc. SIAM Conf. Data Mining, Web Analytics Workshop, 2002.
[17] I. Nino, B. de la Ossa, J. Gil, J. Sahuquillo, and A. Pont, “Carena: A Tool to Capture and Replay Web Navigation Sessions,” Proc. Fifth Workshop End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services (E2EMON '05), May 2005.
[18] F. Smith, F.H. Campos, K. Jeffay, and D. Ott, “What TCP/IP Protocol Headers Can Tell Us About the Web,” Proc. Joint ACM Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS/Performance '01), pp. 245-256, June 2001.
[19] W. Stevens, B. Fenner, A. Rudoff, and R. Stevens, UNIX Network Programming, Vol. 1: The Sockets Networking API, third ed. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003.
[20] Mercury Interactive, Loadrunner v6, http:/mercuryinteractive. com, 2005.
[21] The Apache HTTP Server Project, Apache http server v2.0, http:/www.apache.org, 2007.
[22] TPC benchmark W, 2001, Transaction Processing Performance Council, http://www.tpc.org/tpcwdefault.asp, 2007.

Index Terms:
[H-3-4-b] Distributed systems, [H-3-5-e]Web-based services, [J-8-a] Client/server and multitier systems, [J-8-e] Electronic commerce, [J-8-l] Middleware/business logic
Citation:
Kaushik Dutta, Anindya Datta, Debra VanderMeer, Helen Thomas, Krithi Ramamritham, "ReDAL: An Efficient and Practical Request Distribution Technique for Application Server Clusters," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1516-1528, Nov. 2007, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2007.1105
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.