This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Distributed Selfish Caching
October 2007 (vol. 18 no. 10)
pp. 1361-1376
Although cooperation generally increases the amount of resources available to a community of nodes, thus improving individual and collective performance, it also allows for the appearance of potential mistreatment problems through the exposition of one node’s resources to others. We study such concerns by considering a group of independent, rational, self-aware nodes that cooperate using on-line caching algorithms, where the exposed resource is the storage at each node. Motivated by content networking applications -- including web caching, CDNs, and P2P -- this paper extends our previous work on the off-line version of the problem, which was conducted under a game-theoretic framework, and limited to object replication. We identify and investigate two causes of mistreatment: (1) cache state interactions (due to the cooperative servicing of requests) and (2) the adoption of a common scheme for cache management policies. Using analytic models, numerical solutions of these models, as well as simulation experiments, we show that on-line cooperation schemes using caching are fairly robust to mistreatment caused by state interactions. To appear in a substantial manner, the interaction through the exchange of miss-streams has to be very intense, making it feasible for the mistreated nodes to detect and react to exploitation. This robustness ceases to exist when nodes fetch and store objects in response to remote requests, i.e., when they operate as Level-2 caches (or proxies) for other nodes. Regarding mistreatment due to a common scheme, we show that this can easily take place when the "outlier" characteristics of some of the nodes get overlooked. This finding underscores the importance of allowing cooperative caching nodes the flexibility of choosing from a diverse set of schemes to fit the peculiarities of individual nodes. To that end, we outline an emulation-based framework for the development of mistreatment-resilient distributed selfish caching schemes.

[1] M.F. Arlitt and C.L. Williamson, “Web Server Workload Characterization: The Search for Invariants,” Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS '96), pp. 126-137, 1996.
[2] L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Philips, and S. Shenker, “Web Caching and Zipf-Like Distributions: Evidence and Implications,” Proc. INFOCOM '99, Mar. 1999.
[3] J.W. Byers, J. Considine, M. Mitzenmacher, and S. Rost, “Informed Content Delivery across Adaptive Overlay Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 767-780, Oct. 2004.
[4] B.-G. Chun, K. Chaudhuri, H. Wee, M. Barreno, C.H. Papadimitriou, and J. Kubiatowicz, “Selfish Caching in Distributed Systems: A Game-Theoretic Analysis,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '04), July 2004.
[5] E.G. Coffman and P.J. Denning, Operating Systems Theory. Prentice Hall, 1973.
[6] E. Cohen and S. Shenker, “Replication Strategies in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '02, Aug. 2002.
[7] A. Dan and D. Towsley, “An Approximate Analysis of the LRU and FIFO Buffer Replacement Schemes,” Proc. ACM Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS'90), pp. 143-152, 1990.
[8] D. Wessels and K. Claffy, ICP and the Squid Web Cache, , 2007.
[9] Ö. Erçetin and L. Tassiulas, “Market-Based Resource Allocation for Content Delivery in the Internet,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1573-1585, Dec. 2003.
[10] L. Fan, P. Cao, J. Almeida, and A.Z. Broder, “Summary Cache: A Scalable Wide-Area Web Cache Sharing Protocol,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 281-293, 2000.
[11] M. Guirguis, A. Bestavros, and I. Matta, “Exploiting the Transients of Adaptation for RoQ Attacks on Internet Resources,” Proc. 12th IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '04), Oct. 2004.
[12] S. Jin and A. Bestavros, “Sources and Characteristics of Web Temporal Locality,” Proc. Eighth IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS '00), Aug. 2000.
[13] J. Kangasharju, K.W. Ross, and D.A. Turner, Optimal Content Replication in P2P Communities, manuscript, 2002.
[14] R. Landry and I. Stavrakakis, “Queueing Study of a 3-Priority Policy with Distinct Service Strategies,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 576-589, 1993.
[15] N. Laoutaris, H. Che, and I. Stavrakakis, “The LCD Interconnection of LRU Caches and Its Analysis,” Performance Evaluation, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 609-634, 2006.
[16] N. Laoutaris, G. Smaragdakis, A. Bestavros, I. Matta, and I. Stavrakakis, “Distributed Selfish Caching,” Technical Report BUCS-TR-2006-003, Computer Science Dept., Boston Univ., , Feb. 2006.
[17] N. Laoutaris, G. Smaragdakis, A. Bestavros, and I. Stavrakakis, “Mistreatment in Distributed Caching Groups: Causes and Implications,” Proc. INFOCOM '06, Apr. 2006.
[18] N. Laoutaris, O. Telelis, V. Zissimopoulos, and I. Stavrakakis, “Distributed Selfish Replication,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1401-1413, 2006.
[19] N. Laoutaris, V. Zissimopoulos, and I. Stavrakakis, “On the Optimization of Storage Capacity Allocation for Content Distribution,” Computer Networks, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 409-428, Feb. 2005.
[20] A. Leff, J.L. Wolf, and P.S. Yu, “Replication Algorithms in a Remote Caching Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1185-1204, Nov. 1993.
[21] G. Lin, G. Noubir, and R. Rajaraman, “Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Simulation,” Proc. INFOCOM '04, Mar. 2004.
[22] T. Loukopoulos, P. Lampsas, and I. Ahmad, “Continuous Replica Placement Schemes in Distributed Systems,” Proc. 19th ACM Int'l Conf. Supercomputing (ICS '05), June 2005.
[23] A. Mahanti, C. Williamson, and D. Eager, “Traffic Analysis of a Web Proxy Caching Hierarchy,” IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 3, pp.16-23, May 2000.
[24] M. Marina and S. Das, “Performance of Route Caching Strategies in Dynamic Source Routing,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing (WNMC '01) in conjunction with Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '01), 2001.
[25] J. Pan, Y.T. Hou, and B. Li, “An Overview DNS-Based Server Selection in Content Distribution Networks,” Computer Networks, vol. 43, no. 6, Dec. 2003.
[26] S. Podlipnig and L. Böszörmenyi, “A Survey of Web Cache Replacement Strategies,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 374-398, 2003.
[27] K. Psounis, A. Zhu, B. Prabhakar, and R. Motwani, “Modeling Correlations in Web Traces and Implications for Designing Replacement Policies,” Computer Networks, vol. 45, July 2004.
[28] K.W. Ross, “Hash-Routing for Collections of Shared Web Caches,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, Nov. 1997.
[29] G. Smaragdakis, “Notes on the Effect of Different Access Patterns on the Intensity of Mistreatment in Distributed Caching Groups,” Technical Report BUCS-TR-2006-023, Computer Science Dept., Boston Univ., , Sept. 2006.
[30] X. Tang and S.T. Chanson, “Adaptive Hash Routing for a Cluster of Client-Side Web Proxies,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 1168-1184, Oct. 2004.
[31] A. Wolman, M. Voelker, N. Sharma, N. Cardwell, A. Karlin, and H.M. Levy, “On the Scale and Performance of Cooperative Web Proxy Caching,” ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Rev., vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 16-31, 1999.
[32] L. Yin and G. Cao, “Supporting Cooperative Caching in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. INFOCOM '04, 2004.

Nikolaos Laoutaris, Georgios Smaragdakis, Azer Bestavros, Ibrahim Matta, Ioannis Stavrakakis, "Distributed Selfish Caching," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1361-1376, Oct. 2007, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2007.1076
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.