Issue No.11 - November (2006 vol.17)
pp: 1321-1334
Jiani Guo , IEEE
<p><b>Abstract</b>—We consider a cluster-based multimedia Web server that dynamically generates video units to satisfy the bit rate and bandwidth requirements of a variety of clients. The media server partitions the job into several tasks and schedules them on the backend computing nodes for processing. For stream-based applications, the main design criteria of the scheduling are to minimize the total processing time and maintain the order of media units for each outgoing stream. In this paper, we first design, implement, and evaluate three scheduling algorithms, First Fit (FF), Stream-based Mapping (SM), and Adaptive Load Sharing (ALS), for multimedia transcoding in a cluster environment. We determined that it is necessary to predict the CPU load for each multimedia task and schedule them accordingly due to the variability of the individual jobs/tasks. We, therefore, propose an online prediction algorithm that can dynamically predict the processing time per individual task (media unit). We then propose two new load scheduling algorithms, namely, Prediction-based Least Load First (P-LLF) and Prediction-based Adaptive Partitioning (P-AP), which can use prediction to improve the performance. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of system throughput, out-of-order rate of outgoing media streams, and load balancing overhead through real measurements using a cluster of computers. The performance of the new load balancing algorithms is compared with all other load balancing schemes to show that P-AP greatly reduces the delay jitter and achieves high throughput for a variety of workloads in a heterogeneous cluster. It strikes a good balance between the throughput and output order of the processed media units.</p>
Online prediction, partial predictor, global predictor, adaptive partioning, prediction-based load balancing, out-of-order rate.
Jiani Guo, "Load Balancing in a Cluster-Based Web Server for Multimedia Applications", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.17, no. 11, pp. 1321-1334, November 2006, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2006.159