This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Congestion Adaptive Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
November 2006 (vol. 17 no. 11)
pp. 1294-1305

Abstract—Mobility, channel error, and congestion are the main causes for packet loss in mobile ad hoc networks. Reducing packet loss typically involves congestion control operating on top of a mobility and failure adaptive routing protocol at the network layer. In the current designs, routing is not congestion-adaptive. Routing may let a congestion happen which is detected by congestion control, but dealing with congestion in this reactive manner results in longer delay and unnecessary packet loss and requires significant overhead if a new route is needed. This problem becomes more visible especially in large-scale transmission of heavy traffic such as multimedia data, where congestion is more probable and the negative impact of packet loss on the service quality is of more significance. We argue that routing should not only be aware of, but also be adaptive to, network congestion. Hence, we propose a routing protocol (CRP) with such properties. Our ns-2 simulation results confirm that CRP improves the packet loss rate and end-to-end delay while enjoying significantly smaller protocol overhead and higher energy efficiency as compared to AODV and DSR.

[1] CMU, “The CMU Monarch Project: Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns,” http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.educmu-ns.html , Oct. 1999.
[2] S. Corson and V. Park, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1 Functional Specification,” Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Working Group, IETF, Oct. 1999.
[3] S.R. Das, C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer, and M.K. Marina, “Performance Comparison of Two On-Demand Routing Protocols for AdHoc Networks,” IEEE Personal Comm. Magazine, special issue on ad hoc networking, pp. 16-28, Feb. 2001.
[4] S. Doshi and T.X. Brown, “Minimum Energy Routing Schemes for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002.
[5] J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and M. Spohn, “Source-Tree Routing in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), 1999.
[6] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, “SHORT: Self-Healing and Optimizing Routing Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2003.
[7] Z. Haas, J. Halpern, and L. Li, “Gossip-Based Ad Hoc Routing,” Proc. IEEE Infocom, 2002.
[8] Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D.B. Johnson, “Ariadne: A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), 2002.
[9] J. Broch, D. Johnson, and D. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IETF Internet draft, Oct. 1999.
[10] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, Ad Hoc Networking. Addison-Wesley, 2001.
[11] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, “Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM/IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom '00), pp. 243-254, Aug. 2000.
[12] S.-J. Lee and M. Gerla, “Dynamic Load-Aware Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., pp. 3206-3210, June 2001.
[13] S.-J. Lee and M. Gerla, “Split Multipath Routing with Maximally Disjoint Paths in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., pp. 3201-3205, June 2001.
[14] S.-J. Lee, E.M. Royer, and C.E. Perkins, “Scalability Study of the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol,” ACM/Wiley Int'l J. Network Management, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 97-114, Mar. 2003.
[15] Y. Lu, W. Wang, Y. Zhong, and B. Bhargava, “Study of Distance Vector Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom), pp. 187-194, Mar. 2003.
[16] M. Marina and S. Das, “On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), pp. 14-23, 2001.
[17] A. Nasipuri, R. Castaneda, and S.R. Das, “Performance of Multipath Routing for On-Demand Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” ACM/Baltzer Mobile Networks and Applications J. (MONET), vol. 6, pp. 339-349, 2001.
[18] A. Nasipuri and S.R. Das, “On-Demand Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (IC3N), Oct. 1999.
[19] NS-2, Network Simulater, http://www.isi.edu/nsnamns/, 2006.
[20] C.E. Perkins, “Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 234-344, 1994.
[21] C.E. Perkins, E.M. Belding-Royer, and I. Chakeres, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” IETF Internet draft, Oct. 2003.
[22] H. Raghavendra and D.A. Tran, “Congestion Adaptive Routing in Ad Hoc Networks (Short Version),” Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), Oct. 2004.
[23] E.M. Royer and C.E. Perkins, “Evolution and Future Directions of the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol,” AdHoc Networks J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 125-150, July 2003.
[24] S. Singh, M. Woo, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM Mobicom, 1999.
[25] M. Spohn and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “Neighborhood Aware Source Routing,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2001.
[26] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, “Power-Aware Localized Routing in Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 10, Oct. 2001.
[27] D.A. Tran and H. Raghavendra, “Routing with Congestion Awareness and Adaptivity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), Mar. 2005.
[28] A. Valera, W. Seah, and S. Rao, “Cooperative Packet Caching and Shortest Multipath Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Infocom, Apr. 2003.
[29] S. Vutukury and J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “MDVA: A Distance-Vector Multipath Routing Protocol,” Proc. IEEE Infocom, pp. 557-564, 2001.
[30] G. Yashar and A. Keshavarzian, “Load Balancing in Ad Hoc Networks: Single-Path Routing vs. MultiPath Routing,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '04, Mar. 2004.
[31] Z. Ye, S.V. Krishnamurthy, and S.K. Tripathi, “A Framework for Reliable Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Infocom, Apr. 2003.
[32] S. Yi, P. Naldurg, and R. Kravets, “Security-Aware Ad Hoc Routing for Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), 2001.

Index Terms:
Ad hoc networks, routing protocols, mobile computing, congestion adaptivity.
Citation:
Duc A. Tran, Harish Raghavendra, "Congestion Adaptive Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1294-1305, Nov. 2006, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2006.151
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.