This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
On the Performance of Flooding-Based Resource Discovery
November 2006 (vol. 17 no. 11)
pp. 1242-1252

Abstract—We consider flooding-based resource discovery in distributed systems. With flooding, a node searching for a resource contacts its neighbors in the network, which in turn contact their own neighbors and so on until a node possessing the requested resource is located. Flooding assumes no knowledge about the network topology or the resource distribution thus offering an attractive means for resource discovery in dynamically evolving networks such as peer-to-peer systems. We provide analytical results for the performance of a number of flooding-based approaches that differ in the set of neighbors contacted at each step. The performance metrics we are interested in are the probability of locating a resource and the average number of steps and messages for doing so. We study both uniformly random resource requests and requests in the presence of popular (hot) resources. Our analysis is also extended to take into account the fact that nodes may become unavailable either due to failures or voluntary departures from the system. Our analytical results are validated through simulation.

[1] M. Abolhasan, T. Wysocki, and E. Dutkiewicz, “A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-22, Jan. 2004.
[2] I. Abraham and D. Dolev, “Asynchronous Resource Discovery,” Proc. PODC '03, 22nd ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 143-150, 2003.
[3] F. Banaei-Kashani and C. Shahabi, “Criticality-Based Analysis and Design of Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks as Complex Systems,” Proc. GP2PC '03, Third Int'l Workshop Global and Peer-to-Peer Computing, 2003.
[4] M.A. Bauer and T. Wang, “Strategies for Distributed Search,” Proc. CSC '92, ACM Computer Science Conf., pp. 251-60, 1992.
[5] V.V. Dimakopoulos and E. Pitoura, “A Peer-to-Peer Approach to Resource Discovery in Multi-Agent Systems,” Proc. CIA '03, Seventh Int'l Workshop Cooperative Information Agents, pp. 62-77, 2000.
[6] V.V. Dimakopoulos and E. Pitoura, “Performance Analysis of Distributed Search in Open Agent Systems,” Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '03), 2003.
[7] L. Fan, P. Cao, J. Almeida, and A. Broder, “Summary Cache: A Scalable Wide-Area Web Cache Sharing Protocol,” Proc. 10th ACM SIGCOMM Conf., 1998.
[8] Gnutella RFC, http:/rfc-gnutella.sourceforge.net, 2003.
[9] Z. Haas, J.Y. Halpern, and L. Li, “Gossip-Based Ad Hoc Routing,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002, pp. 1707-1716, 2002.
[10] M. Harchol-Balter, T. Leighton, and D. Lewin, “Resource Discovery in Distributed Networks,” Proc. 18th ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '99), pp. 229-337, 1999.
[11] V. Kalogeraki, D. Gunopulos, and D. Zeinalipour-Yazti, “A Local Search Mechanism for Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 11th ACM Conf. Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), 2002.
[12] S. Kutten and D. Peleg, “Asynchronous Resource Discovery in Peer to Peer Networks,” Proc. 21st IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS '02), 2002.
[13] S. Kutten, D. Peleg, and U. Vishkin, “Deterministic Resource Discovery in Distributed Networks,” Proc. 13th Ann. ACM Symp. Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA '01), pp. 77-83, 2001.
[14] E. Leontiadis, V. Dimakopoulos, and E. Pitoura, “Cache Updates in a Peer-to-Peer Network of Mobile Agents,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Peer-to-Peer Computing, 2004.
[15] Q. Lv, P. Cao, E. Cohen, K. Li, and S. Shenker, “Search and Replication in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 16th ACM Int'l Conf. Supercomputing (ICS '02), pp. 84-95, 2002.
[16] E.P. Markatos, “Tracing a Large-Scale Peer to Peer System: an Hour in the Life of Gnutella,” Proc. CCGrid '02, Second IEEE Int'l Symp. Cluster Computing and the Grid, pp. 65-74, 2002.
[17] S. Ratnasamy, P. Francis, M. Handley, R. Karp, and S. Schenker, “A Scalable Content-Addressable Network,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '01 Conf., pp. 161-172, 2001.
[18] A. Rowstron and P. Druschel, “Storage Management and Caching in PAST, a Large-Scale, Persistent Peer-to-Peer Storage Utility,” Proc. 18th ACM Symp. Operating System Priciples (SOSP '01), pp.188-201, 2001.
[19] S. Saroiu, P.K. Gummadi, and S.D. Gribble, “A Measurement Study of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems,” Proc. Multimedia Computing and Networking Conf. (MMCN '02), 2002.
[20] O. Shehory, “A Scalable Agent Location Mechanism,” Proc. ATAL '99, Sixth Int'l Workshop Intelligent Agents, Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, pp. 162-172, 2000.
[21] K. Sripanidkulchai, “The Popularity of Gnutella Queries and Its Implications on Scalability,” O'Reilly's www.openp2p.com site, 2001.
[22] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, M.F. Kaashoek, and H. Balakrishnan, “Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '01 Conf., pp. 149-160, 2001.
[23] K. Sycara, M. Klusch, S. Widoff, and J. Lu, “Dynamic Service Matchmaking among Agents in Open Information Environments,” SIGMOD Record, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 47-53, Mar. 1999.

Index Terms:
Resource discovery, flooding, distributed systems, performance analysis, peer-to-peer systems, multiagent systems.
Citation:
Vassilios V. Dimakopoulos, Evaggelia Pitoura, "On the Performance of Flooding-Based Resource Discovery," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1242-1252, Nov. 2006, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2006.161
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.