This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Exploiting Geographical and Temporal Locality to Boost Search Efficiency in Peer-to-Peer Systems
October 2006 (vol. 17 no. 10)
pp. 1189-1203

Abstract—As a hot research topic, many search algorithms have been presented and studied for unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) systems during the past few years. Unfortunately, current approaches either cannot yield good lookup performance, or incur high search cost and system maintenance overhead. The poor search efficiency of these approaches may seriously limit the scalability of current unstructured P2P systems. In this paper, we propose to exploit two-dimensional locality to improve P2P system search efficiency. We present a locality-aware P2P system architecture called Foreseer, which explicitly exploits geographical locality and temporal locality by constructing a neighbor overlay and a friend overlay, respectively. Each peer in Foreseer maintains a small number of neighbors and friends along with their content filters used as distributed indices. By combining the advantages of distributed indices and the utilization of two-dimensional locality, our scheme significantly boosts P2P search efficiency while introducing only modest overhead. In addition, several alternative forwarding policies of Foreseer search algorithm are studied in depth on how to fully exploit the two-dimensional locality.

[1] L.A. Adamic, R.M. Lukose, A.R. Puniyani, and B.A. Huberman, “Search in Power-Law Networks,” Physical Rev. E, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 46135-46143, 2001.
[2] B.H. Bloom, “Space/Time Trade-Offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors,” Comm. ACM, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 422-426, 1970.
[3] H. Cai and J. Wang, “Caching Routing Indices in Structured P2P Overlays,” Proc. 34th Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP '05), pp. 521-528, June 2005.
[4] M. Castro, M. Costa, and A. Rowstron, “Debunking Some Myths about Structured and Unstructured Overlays,” Proc. Second Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '05), May 2005.
[5] Y. Chawathe, S. Ratnasamy, L. Breslau, N. Lanham, and S. Shenker, “Making Gnutella-Like P2P Systems Scalable,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '03, pp. 407-418, Aug. 2003.
[6] V. Cholvi, P. Felber, and E. Biersack, “Efficient Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 16th ACM Symp. Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA '04), pp. 271-272, June 2004.
[7] E. Cohen, A. Fiat, and H. Kaplan, “Associative Search in Peer to Peer Networks: Harnessing Latent Semantics,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, pp. 1261-1271, Mar. 2003.
[8] A. Crespo and H. Garcia-Molina, “Routing Indices for Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 23-34, July 2002.
[9] A. Crespo and H. Garcia-Molina, “Semantic Overlay Networks for P2P Systems,” technical report, Stanford Univ., 2003.
[10] F.M. Cuenca-Acuna, C. Peery, R.P. Martin, and T.D. Nguyen, “PlanetP: Using Gossiping to Build Content Addressable Peer-to-Peer Information Sharing Communities,” Proc. 12th Int'l Symp. High Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC-12), pp. 236-246, June 2003.
[11] eDonkey, http:/, 2003.
[12] L. Fan, P. Cao, J.M. Almeida, and A.Z. Broder, “Summary Cache: A Scalable Wide-Area Web Cache Sharing Protocol,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 281-293, 2000.
[13] F. Le Fessant, S.B. Handurukande, A.-M. Kermarrec, and L. Massoulié, “Clustering in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Workloads,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), pp. 217-226, Feb. 2004.
[14] P. Ganesan, Q. Sun, and H. Garcia-Molina, “YAPPERS: A Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service over Arbitrary Topology,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, pp. 1250-1260, Mar. 2003.
[15] C. Gkantsidis, M. Mihail, and A. Saberi, “Random Walks in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '04, pp. 120-130, Mar. 2004.
[16] C. Gkantsidis, M. Mihail, and A. Saberi, “Hybrid Search Schemes for Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, pp. 1526-1237, Mar. 2005.
[17] Gnutella, 2003, index.html.
[18] P. Krishna Gummadi, R.J. Dunn, S. Saroiu, S.D. Gribble, H.M. Levy, and J. Zahorjan, “Measurement, Modeling, and Analysis of a Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Workload,” Proc. 19th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP-19), pp. 314-329, Oct. 2003.
[19] S. Handurukande, A.-M. Kermarrec, F. Le Fessant, and L. Massoulie, “Exploiting Semantic Clustering in the eDonkey P2P Network,” Proc. 11th ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, Sept. 2004.
[20] V. Kalogeraki, D. Gunopulos, and D. Zeinalipour-Yazti, “A Local Search Mechanism for Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '02), pp. 300-307, Nov. 2002.
[21] J. Li, B.T. Loo, J.M. Hellerstein, and M.F. Kaashoek, “On the Feasibility of Peer-to-Peer Web Indexing and Search,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), pp. 207-215, Feb. 2003.
[22] Limewire, http:/, 2006.
[23] B.T. Loo, R. Huebsch, I. Stoica, and J. Hellerstein, “The Case for a Hybrid P2P Search Infrastructure,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), pp. 140-151, Feb. 2004.
[24] Q. Lv, P. Cao, E. Cohen, K. Li, and S. Shenker, “Search and Replication in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 16th ACM Int'l Conf. Supercomputing (ICS '02), pp. 84-95, June 2002.
[25] P. Reynolds and A. Vahdat, “Efficient Peer-to-Peer Keyword Searching,” Proc. ACM/IFIP/USENIX Int'l Middleware Conf. (Middleware), pp. 21-40, June 2003.
[26] A. Rowstron and P. Druschel, “Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location, and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. IFIP/ACM Int'l Conf. Distributed Systems Platforms (Middleware), pp. 329-350, Nov. 2001.
[27] S. Saroiu, P. Krishna Gummadi, and S.D. Gribble, “A Measurement Study of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems,” Proc. Multimedia Computing and Networking Conf. (MMCN), Jan. 2002.
[28] S. Shi, G. Yang, D. Wang, J. Yu, S. Qu, and M. Chen, “Making Peer-to-Peer Keyword Searching Feasible Using Multi-Level Partitioning,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), pp. 151-161, Feb. 2004.
[29] K. Sripanidkulchai, B.M. Maggs, and H. Zhang, “Efficient Content Location Using Interest-Based Locality in Peer-to-Peer Systems,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, pp. 2166-2176, Mar. 2003.
[30] C. Tang and S. Dwarkadas, “Hybrid Global-Local Indexing for Efficient Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval,” Proc. First Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '04), pp. 211-224, Mar. 2004.
[31] R. Tian, Y. Xiong, Q. Zhang, B. Li, B.Y. Zhao, and X. Li, “Hybrid Overlay Structure Based on Random Walks,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), Feb. 2005.
[32] D. Tsoumakos and N. Roussopoulos, “Adaptive Probabilistic Search for Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. Third IEEE Int'l Conf. P2P Computing, pp. 102-109, Sept. 2003.
[33] D. Tsoumakos and N. Roussopoulos, “A Comparison of Peer-to-Peer Search Methods,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Web and Database (WebDB), pp. 61-66, June 2003.
[34] S. Voulgaris, A.-M. Kermarrec, L. Massoulie, and M. van Steen, “Exploiting Semantic Proximity in Peer-to-Peer Content Searching,” Proc. 10th Int'l Workshop Future Trends in Distributed Computing Systems (FTDCS '04), pp. 238-243, May 2004.
[35] C. Wang, L. Xiao, Y. Liu, and P. Zheng, “Distributed Caching and Adaptive Search in Multilayer P2P Networks,” Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 219-226, Mar. 2004.
[36] B. Yang and H. Garcia-Molina, “Improving Search in Peer-to-Peer Networks,” Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 5-14, July 2002.
[37] E.W. Zegura, K.L. Calvert, and S. Bhattacharjee, “How to Model an Internetwork,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '96, pp. 594-602, Mar. 1996.

Index Terms:
Foreseer, unstructured peer-to-peer systems, geographical locality, temporal locality, search efficiency.
Hailong Cai, Jun Wang, "Exploiting Geographical and Temporal Locality to Boost Search Efficiency in Peer-to-Peer Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1189-1203, Oct. 2006, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2006.139
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.