This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Feedback Control Architecture and Design Methodology for Service Delay Guarantees in Web Servers
September 2006 (vol. 17 no. 9)
pp. 1014-1027

Abstract—This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive Web server architecture to provide relative and absolute connection delay guarantees for different service classes. The first contribution of this paper is an adaptive architecture based on feedback control loops that enforce desired connection delays via dynamic connection scheduling and process reallocation. The second contribution is the use of control theoretic techniques to model and design the feedback loops with desired dynamic performance. In contrast to heuristics-based approaches that rely on laborious hand-tuning and testing iteration, the control theoretic approach enables systematic design of an adaptive Web server with established analytical methods. The adaptive architecture has been implemented by modifying an Apache server. Experimental results demonstrate that the adaptive server provides robust delay guarantees even when workload varies significantly.

[1] T.F. Abdelzaher and N. Bhatti, “Web Server QoS Management by Adaptive Content Delivery,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Quality of Service, 1999.
[2] T.F. Abdelzaher, J.A. Stankovic, C. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “Feedback Performance Control in Software Services,” IEEE Control Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, June 2003.
[3] L. Abeni, L. Palopoli, G. Lipari, and J. Walpole, “Analysis of a Reservation-Based Feedback Scheduler,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 2002.
[4] J. Almedia, M. Dabu, A. Manikntty, and P. Cao, “Providing Differentiated Levels of Service in Web Content Hosting,” Proc. First Workshop Internet Server Performance, June 1998.
[5] Apache Software Foundation, http:/www.apache.org, 2006.
[6] K.J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, second ed. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[7] G. Banga, P. Druschel, and J.C. Mogul, “Resource Containers: A New Facility for Resource Management in Server Systems,” Proc. Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implemementation, 1999.
[8] N. Bhatti and R. Friedrich, “Web Server Support for Tiered Services,” IEEE Network, vol. 13, no. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1999.
[9] P. Barford and M.E. Crovella, “Generating Representative Web Workloads for Network and Server Performance Evaluation,” Proc. SIGMETRICS, 1998.
[10] S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An Architecture for Differentiated Services,” IETF RFC 2475, 1998.
[11] A. Bouch, N. Bhatti, and A.J. Kuchinsky, “Quality Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Meeting Users' Requirements for Internet Quality of Service,” Proc. ACM CHI '00, Apr. 2000.
[12] A. Cervin, J. Eker, B. Bernhardsson, and K.-E. Årzén, “Feedback-Feedforward Scheduling of LQG-Control Tasks,” Real-Time Systems, vol. 23, nos. 1/2, 2002.
[13] L. Cherkasova and P. Phaal, “Peak Load Management for Commercial Web Servers Using Adaptive Session-Based Admission Control,” Proc. 34th Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 2001.
[14] M.E. Crovella and A. Bestavros, “Self-Similarity in World Wide Web Traffic: Evidence and Possible Causes,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 835-846, Dec. 1997.
[15] Y. Diao, N. Gandhi, J.L. Hellerstein, S. Parekh, and D.M. Tilbury, “MIMO Control of an Apache Web Server: Modeling and Controller Design,” Proc. Am. Control Conf., 2002.
[16] Y. Diao, J.L. Hellerstein, A. Storm, M. Surendra, S. Lightstone, S. Parekh, and C. Garcia-Arellano, “Incorporating Cost of Control into the Design of a Load Balancing Controller,” IEEE RTAS, 2004.
[17] C. Dovrolis, D. Stiliadis, and P. Ramanathan, “Proportional Differentiated Services: Delay Differentiation and Packet Scheduling,” Proc. SIGCOMM, Aug. 1999.
[18] P. Druschel and G. Banga, “Lazy Receiver Processing (LRP): A Network Subsystem Architecture for Server Systems,” Proc. Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implemementation, 1996.
[19] L. Eggert and J. Heidemann, “Application-Level Differentiated Services for Web Servers,” World Wide Web J., vol. 2, no. 3, Mar. 1999.
[20] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol— HTTP/1.1,” IETF RFC 2616, June 1999.
[21] G.F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, and A. Emami-Naeini, “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems,” 1994.
[22] K. Jeffay, F.D. Smith, A. Moorthy, and J.H. Anderson, “Proportional Share Scheduling of Operating System Services for Real-Time Applications,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1998.
[23] M. Karlsson, C. Karamanolis, and X. Zhu, “Triage: Performance Isolation and Differentiation for Storage Systems,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Quality of Service, 2004.
[24] B. Li and K. Nahrstedt, “A Control-Based Middleware Framework for Quality of Service Adaptations,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., Sept. 1999.
[25] C.L. Liu and J.W. Layland, “Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard Real-Time Environment,” J. ACM, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 46-61, 1973.
[26] C. Lu, T.F. Abdelzaher, J.A. Stankovic, and S.H. Son, “A Feedback Control Approach for Guaranteeing Relative Delays in Web Servers,” IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp., June 2001.
[27] C. Lu, G.A. Alvarez, and J. Wilkes, “Aqueduct: Online Data Migration with Performance Guarantees,” Proc. USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, Jan. 2002.
[28] C. Lu, J.A. Stankovic, G. Tao, and S.H. Son, “Feedback Control Real-Time Scheduling: Framework, Modeling, and Algorithms,” Real-Time Systems, vol. 23, nos. 1/2, 2002.
[29] Y. Lu, T.F. Abdelzaher, C. Lu, and G. Tao, “An Adaptive Control Framework for QoS Guarantees and Its Application to Differentiated Caching Services,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Quality of Service, 2002.
[30] Y. Lu, T.F. Abdelzaher, C. Lu, L. Sha, and X. Liu, “Feedback Control with Queueing-Theoretic Prediction for Relative Delay Guarantees in Web Servers,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symp., 2003.
[31] J.C. Mogul, “The Case for Persistent-Connection HTTP,” Proc. SIGCOMM, 1995.
[32] V. Pai, P. Druschel, and W. Zwaenepoel, “Flash: An Efficient and Portable Web Server,” Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf., June 1999.
[33] S. Parekh, N. Gandhi, J. Hellerstein, D. Tilbury, T. Jayram, and J. Bigus, “Using Control Theory to Achieve Service Level Objectives in Performance Management,” Proc. IFIP/IEEE Int'l Symp. Integrated Network Management, May 2001.
[34] S. Parekh, K. Rose, Y. Diao, V. Chang, J.L. Hellerstein, S. Lightstone, and M. Huras, “Throttling Utilities in the IBM DB2 Universal Database Server,” Proc. Am. Control Conf., 2004.
[35] L. Sha, X. Liu, Y. Lu, and T.F. Abdelzaher, “Queueing Model Based Network Server Performance Control,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 2002.
[36] D.C. Steere, A. Goel, J. Gruenberg, D. McNamee, C. Pu, and J. Walpole, “A Feedback-Driven Proportion Allocator for Real-Rate Scheduling,” Proc. Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implemementation, Feb. 1999.
[37] N. Vasiliou and H. Lutfiyya, “Providing a Differentiated Quality of Service in a World Wide Web Server,” Performance Evaluation Rev., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 22-27, 2000.
[38] L. Zhang, S. Deering, D. Estrin, S. Shenker, and D. Zappala, “RSVP: A New Resource ReSerVation Protocol,” IEEE Network, Sept. 1993.

Index Terms:
Web server, Quality of Service, feedback control, proportional differentiated service.
Citation:
Chenyang Lu, Ying Lu, Tarek F. Abdelzaher, John A. Stankovic, Sang Hyuk Son, "Feedback Control Architecture and Design Methodology for Service Delay Guarantees in Web Servers," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1014-1027, Sept. 2006, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2006.123
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.