This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
A Quorum-Based Protocol for Searching Objects in Peer-to-Peer Networks
January 2006 (vol. 17 no. 1)
pp. 25-37
Hirotsugu Kakugawa, IEEE Computer Society

Abstract—Peer-to-peer (P2P) system is an overlay network of peer computers without centralized servers, and many applications have been developed for such networks such as file sharing systems. Because a set of peers dynamically changes, design and verification of efficient protocols is a challenging task. In this paper, we consider an object searching problem under a resource model such that there are some replicas in a system and the lower bound of the ratio \rho=n^\prime /n is known in advance, where n^\prime is a lower bound of the number of peers that hold original or replica for any object type and n is the total number of peers. In addition, we consider object searching with probabilistic success, i.e., for each object search, object must be found with at least probability 0 < \sigma < 1. To solve such a problem efficiently, we propose a new communication structure, named probabilistic weak quorum systems (PWQS), which is an extension of coterie. Then, we propose a fault-tolerant protocol for searching for objects in a P2P system. In our method, each peer does not maintain global information such as the set of all peers and a logical topology with global consistency. In our protocol, each peer communicates only a small part of a peer set and, thus, our protocol is adaptive for huge scale P2P network.

[1] D.S. Milojicic, V. Kalogeraki, R. Lukose, K. Nagaraja, J. Pruyne, B. Richard, S. Rollins, and Z. Xu, “Peer-to-Peer Computing,” Technical Report HPL-2002-57, Palo Alto, Calif.: HP Laboratories, 2002.
[2] S. Ratnasamy, P. Francis, M. Handley, R.M. Karp, and S. Schenker, “A Scalable Content-Addressable Network,” Proc. SIGCOMM, pp. 161-172, 2001.
[3] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, M. Frans Kaashoek, and H. Balakrishnan, “Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Application,” Proc. SIGCOMM, pp. 149-160, 2001.
[4], “The Web Page of Gnutella,” 2005, http:/
[5] I. Clarke, O. Sandberg, B. Wiley, and T.W. Hong, “Freenet: A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System,” Proc. Workshop Design Issues in Anonymity and Unobservability, pp. 46-66, 2000.
[6] S. Daswani and A.A. Fisk, “Gnutella UDP Extension for Scalable Searches (GUESS) v0.1,” Proposals/Pending%20Proposals/GUESS guess_01.txt, 2002.
[7] B. Yang, P. Vinograd, and H. Garcia-Molina, “Evaluating GUESS and Non-Forwarding Peer-to-Peer Search,” Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 209-218, 2004.
[8] H. Garcia-Molina and D. Barbara, “How to Assign Votes in a Distributed System,” J. ACM, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 841-860, 1985.
[9] M. Maekawa, “A $\sqrt{n}$ Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion in Decentralized Systems,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 145-159, 1985.
[10] H. Kakugawa, S. Fujita, M. Yamashita, and T. Ae, “Availability of $k{\hbox{-}}{\rm{Coterie}}$ ,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 553-558, Apr. 1993.
[11] H. Kakugawa, S. Fujita, M. Yamashita, and T. Ae, “A Distributed $k{\hbox{-}}{\rm{Mutual}}$ Exclusion Algorithm Using $k{\hbox{-}}{\rm{Coterie}}$ ,” Information Processing Letters, vol. 49, pp. 213-218, 1994.
[12] H. Kakugawa and M. Yamashita, “Local Coteries and a Distributed Resource Allocation Algorithm,” Trans. Information Processing Soc. of Japan, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1487-1495, 1996.
[13] Y.-J. Joung, “Quorum-Based Algorithms for Group Mutual Exclusion,” Proc. 15th Conf. Distributed Computing (DISC), pp. 16-32, 2001.
[14] Y. Manabe, R. Baldoni, M. Raynal, and S. Aoyagi, “$k{\hbox{-}}{\rm{Arbiter}}$ : A Safe and General Scheme for $h{\hbox{-}}{\rm{Out}}$ ${\rm{of}}{\hbox{-}}k$ Mutual Exclusion,” Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 193, nos. 1-2, pp. 97-112, Feb. 1998.
[15] D. Malkhi, M. Reiter, and R. Wright, “Probabilistic Quorum Systems,” Proc. 16th ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pp. 267-273, 1997.
[16] D. Malkhi, M.K. Reiter, A. Wool, and R.N. Wright, “Probabilistic Quorum Systems,” The Information and Computation J., vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 184-206, 2001.
[17] H. Lee and J.L. Welch, “Application of Probabilistic Quorums to Iterative Algorithms,” Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 21-28, 2001.
[18] H. Yoshimura, H. Kakugawa, and Tadashi Ae, “A Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Probabilistic Quorum Systems and Its Experimental Evaluation,” Trans. Information Processing Soc. of Japan, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 776-783, Mar. 2002, (in Japanese).
[19] H. Yoshimura, K. Miura, and H. Kakugawa, “A Distributed Algorithm for Resource Allocation with Probabilistic Quorum Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Networks, Parallel and Distributed Processing, and Applications (NPDPA), pp. 241-246, 2002.
[20] M. Naor and U. Wieder, “Scalable and Dynamic Quorum Systems,” Proc. 22nd ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pp. 114-122, 2003.
[21] I. Abraham and D. Malkhi, “Probabilistic Quorums for Dynamic Systems,” Proc. 17th Int'l Symp. Distributed Computing (DISC), pp. 60-74, 2003.
[22] M. Naor and A. Wool, “The Load, Capacity and Availability of Quorum Systems,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 423-447, 1998.
[23] M. Harchol-Balter, T. Leighton, and D. Lewin, “Resource Discovery in Distributed Networks,” Proc. 18th ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 229-237, 1999.
[24] Distributed Systems, S. Mullender, ed. Addison-Wesley, second ed., 1993.
[25] M. Schneider, “Self-Stabilization,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 25, pp. 45-67, 1993.
[26] F.C. Gärtner, “Fundamentals of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computing in Asynchronous Environments,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 35, pp. 43-48, 1996.
[27] S. Dolev, Self-Stabilization. The MIT Press, 2000.
[28] M.J. Erickson, Introduction to Combinatrics. Wiley, 1996.

Index Terms:
Distributed systems, distributed data structures, reliability and robustness, combinatorial algorithms, distributed file systems.
Ken Miura, Taro Tagawa, Hirotsugu Kakugawa, "A Quorum-Based Protocol for Searching Objects in Peer-to-Peer Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 25-37, Jan. 2006, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2006.2
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.