This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
On Optimal Replication of Data Object at Hierarchical and Transparent Web Proxies
August 2005 (vol. 16 no. 8)
pp. 673-685

Abstract—This paper investigates the optimal replication of data objects at hierarchical and transparent web proxies. By transparent, we mean the proxies are capable of intercepting users' requests and forwarding the requests to a higher level proxy if the requested data are not present in their local cache. Two cases of data replication at proxies are studied: 1) proxies having unlimited storage capacities and 2) proxies having limited storage capacities. For the former case, an efficient algorithm for computing the optimal result is proposed. For the latter case, we prove the problem is NP-hard, and propose two heuristic algorithms. Extensive simulations have been conducted and the simulation results have demonstrated significant performance gain by using the proposed data replication algorithms and also shown the proposed algorithms out-perform the standard web caching algorithm (LRU threshold method).

[1] P. Barford and M. Crovella, “Generating Representative Web Workloads for Network and Server Performance Evaluation,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, pp. 151-160, July 1998.
[2] L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Philips, and S. Shenker, “Web Caching and Zipf-Like Distributions: Evidence and Implications,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, 1999.
[3] P. Cao and C. Liu, “Maintaining Strong Cache Consistency in the World Wide Web,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 445-457, Apr. 1998.
[4] S. Ceri, G. Martella, and G. Pelagatti, “Optimal File Allocation in a Computer Network: A Solution Method Based on the Knapsack Problem,” Computer Networks, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 345-357, 1982.
[5] A. Chankhunthod, P.B. Danzig, C. Neerdaels, M.F. Schwartz, and K.J. Worrell, “A Hierarchical Internet Object Cache,” Proc. USENIX Technical Conf., Jan. 1996.
[6] M. Chatel, “Classical versus Transparent IP Proxies,” RFC 1919, Mar. 1996.
[7] E. Cronin, S. Jamin, C. Jin, A. Kurc, D. Raz, and Y. Shavitt, “Constrained Mirror Placement on the Internet,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1369-1382, Sept. 2002.
[8] B.D. Davison, “Proxy Cache Comparison,” http://www.web-caching.comproxy-comparison.html , 2005.
[9] J. Dilley and M. Arlitt, “Improving Proxy Cache Performance: Analysis of Three Replacement Policies,” IEEE Internet Computing, pp. 44-50, Nov.-Dec. 1999.
[10] L.W. Dowdy and D.V. Foster, “Comparative Models of the File Assignment Problem,” ACM Computing Survey, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 287-313, 1982.
[11] M. Faloutsos, P. Faloutsos, and C. Faloutsos, “On Power-Law Relationships of the Internet Topology,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 1999.
[12] M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1979.
[13] K.B. Irani and N.G. Khabbaz, “A Methodology for the Design of Communication Networks and the Distribution of Data in Distributed Supercomputer Systems,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 419-434, May 1982.
[14] X. Jia, D. Li, X. Hu, and D. Du, “Optimal Placement of Web Proxies for Replicated Web Servers in the Internet,” The Computer J., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 329-339, Oct. 2001.
[15] X. Jia, D. Li, X. Hu, W. Wu, and D. Du, “Placement of Web Server Proxies with Consideration of Read and Update Operations in the Internet,” The Computer J., vol. 46, no. 4, 2003.
[16] K. Kalpakis, K. Dasgupta, and O. Wolfson, “Optimal Placement of Replicas in Tree with Read, Write, and Storage Costs,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 628-636, June 2001.
[17] J. Kangasharju, J. Roberts, and K.W. Ross, “Object Replication Strategies in Content Distribution Networks,” Computer Comm., vol. 25, pp. 376-383, 2002.
[18] O. Kariv and S.L. Hakimi, “An Algorithmic Approach to Network Location Problems. II: The P-Medians,” SIAM J. Applied Math., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 539-560, 1979.
[19] P. Krishnan, D. Raz, and Y. Shavitt, “The Cache Location Problem,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 568-582, Oct. 2000.
[20] C. Labovitz, G.R. Malan, and F. Jahania, “Internet Routing Instability,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '97, pp. 115-126, Aug. 1997.
[21] B. Li, M.J. Golin, G.F. Italiano, and X. Deng, “On the Optimal Placement of Web Proxies in the Internet,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, pp. 1282-1290, Mar. 1999.
[22] V. Paxson, “End-to-End Routing Behavior in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 5, pp. 601-615, Oct. 1997.
[23] G. Pierre, M. van Steen, and A.S. Tanenbaum, “Dynamically Selecting Optimal Distribution Strategies for Web Documents,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 637-651, June 2002.
[24] L. Qiu, V. Padmanabhan, and G. Voelker, “On the Placement of Web Server Replicas,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, Apr. 2001.
[25] P. Rodriguez, C. Spanner, and E.W. Biersack, “Analysis of Web Caching Architectures: Hierarchical and Distributed Caching,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 404-418, Aug. 2001.
[26] X. Tang and S. Chanson, “Coordinated En-Route Web Caching,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 595-607, June 2002.
[27] R. Tewari, T. Niranjan, S. Ramamurthy, “WCDP: A Protocol for Web Cache Consistency,” Proc. Web Caching and Content Distribution Workshop, 2002.

Index Terms:
Web server, Web proxy, Web caching, data replication, World Wide Web.
Citation:
Xiaohua Jia, Deying Li, Hongwei Du, Jinli Cao, "On Optimal Replication of Data Object at Hierarchical and Transparent Web Proxies," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 673-685, Aug. 2005, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2005.94
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.