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Power-Aware Scheduling for AND/OR Graphs in Real-Time Systems
September 2004 (vol. 15 no. 9)
pp. 849-864
Dakai Zhu, IEEE
Daniel Moss?, IEEE Computer Society

Abstract—Power aware computing has become popular recently and many techniques have been proposed to manage processor energy consumption for traditional real-time applications. In this paper, we are concerned mainly with the AND/OR model of real-time applications that have different execution paths consisting of different tasks. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we propose a greedy slack stealing algorithm to deal with applications represented by AND/OR graphs and prove its correctness in terms of meeting the timing constraints. Then, using statistical information about the applications, we propose a few variations of speculative scheduling algorithms that intend to save energy by reducing the number of speed changes (and, thus, the overhead) while ensuring that the application meets its timing constraints. Some practical issues are also considered, such as shared memory access contention and idle energy consumption. The performance of the algorithms is analyzed with respect to processor energy savings. The results surprisingly show that the greedy slack stealing scheme is better than some speculative schemes and that the greedy scheme is good enough when a reasonable minimal speed exists in the system or when there are only a few (four to six) voltage/speed levels.

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Index Terms:
Power-aware scheduling, AND/OR, real-time systems.
Citation:
Dakai Zhu, Daniel Moss?, Rami Melhem, "Power-Aware Scheduling for AND/OR Graphs in Real-Time Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 849-864, Sept. 2004, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2004.45
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