This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
An Effective Methodology to Improve the Performance of the Up*/Down* Routing Algorithm
August 2004 (vol. 15 no. 8)
pp. 740-754
Antonio Robles, IEEE Computer Society
Jos? Duato, IEEE

Abstract—Networks of workstations (NOWs) are being considered as a cost-effective alternative to parallel computers. Most NOWs are arranged as a switch-based network and provide mechanisms for discovering the network topology. Hence, they provide support for both regular and irregular topologies, which makes routing and deadlock avoidance quite complicated. Current proposals use the Up*/down* routing algorithm to remove cyclic dependencies between channels and avoid deadlock. However, routing is considerably restricted and most messages must follow nonminimal paths, increasing latency and wasting resources. In this work, we propose and evaluate a simple and effective methodology to compute Up*/down* routing tables. The new methodology is based on computing a depth-first search (DFS) spanning tree on the network graph that decreases the number of routing restrictions with respect to the breadth-first search (BFS) spanning tree used by the traditional methodology. Additionally, we propose different heuristic rules for computing the spanning trees to improve the efficiency of Up*/down* routing. Evaluation results for several different topologies show that computing the Up*/down* routing tables by using the new methodology increases throughput by a factor of up to 2.48 in large networks with respect to the traditional methodology, and also reduces latency significantly.

[1] F.J. Alfaro et al., On the Performance of Up*/Down* Routing Proc. Workshop Comm., Architecture and Applications for Network-Based Parallel Computing, Jan. 2000.
[2] N. Boden et al., "Myrinet: A Gigabit-per-Second Local Area Network," IEEE Micro, Feb. 1995, pp. 29-36.
[3] H. Chen and P. Wyckoff, Performance Characterization of a Terabit Switch and Myrinet as Cluster Interconnects Proc. HOT Interconnects Conf., Aug. 2000.
[4] L. Cherkasova, V. Kotov, and T. Rokicki, “Fibre Channel Fabrics: Evaluation and Design,” Proc. 29th Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, Feb. 1995.
[5] Cisco Systems, Catalyst 6000 Family IOS Command Reference,ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/sohi/papers/1998/micro.compiler.ps.gzhttp:/ /www.cisco.com/ en/US/products/hw/switches/ps700index.html , 2003.
[6] W.J. Dally and C.L. Seitz, Deadlock-Free Message Routing in Multiprocessors Interconnection Networks IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 547-553, May 1987.
[7] W.J. Dally, "Virtual-Channel Flow Control," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 194-205, Mar. 1992.
[8] J. Duato, "A New Theory of Deadlock-Free Adaptive Routing in Wormhole Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1,320-1,331, Dec. 1993.
[9] J. Duato, A. Robles, F. Silla, and R. Beivide, A Comparison of Router Architectures for Virtual Cut-through and Wormhole Switching in a NOW Environment J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 224-253, Feb. 2001.
[10] J. Flich, P. López, M.P. Malumbres, and J. Duato, Boosting the Performance of Myrinet Networks IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. 7, July 2002.
[11] D. García and W. Watson, Servernet II Proc. Parallel Computer, Routing, and Comm. Workshop, June 1997.
[12] InfiniBand Trade Association, InfiniBand Architecture, Specification Volume n1, Release 1.0.a,http:/www.infinibandta.com, 2003.
[13] P.R. Miller, Efficient Communications for Fine-Grain Distributed Computers PhD thesis, Southamptom Univ., 1991.
[14] Myrinet, M2-CB-35 LAN Cables,http://www.myri.com/myri netproduct\_list.html , 2003.
[15] V.S. Pai et al., Rsim: An Execution-Driven Simulator for ILP-Based Shared-Memory Multiprocessor and Uniprocessors IEEE TCCA Newsletter, Oct. 1997.
[16] J. Pal Singh et al., SPLASH: Stanford Parallel Applications for Shared-Memory Multiprocessors and Uniprocessors Computer Architecture News, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 5-44, May 1992.
[17] R. Perlman, Interconnections: Bridges, Routers, Switches and Internetworking Protocols. second ed., Addison-Wesley, Apr. 1990.
[18] V. Puente, C. Izu, R. Beivide, J.A. Gregorio, F. Vallejo, and J.M. Prellezo, The Adaptive Bubble Router J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1180-1208, Sept. 2001.
[19] V. Puente, J.A. Gregorio, R. Beivide, F. Vallejo, and A. Ibañez, A New Routing Mechanism for Networks with Irregular Topology Proc. Int'l Conf. SuperComputing, May 2001.
[20] W. Qiao and L.M. Ni, “Adaptive Routing in Irregular Networks Using Cut-Through Switches,” Proc. 1996 Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing, Aug. 1996.
[21] W. Qiao, L.M. Ni, and T. Rokicki, Adaptive-Trail Routing and Performance Evaluation in Irregular Networks Using Cut-Through Switches IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1138-1158, Nov. 1999.
[22] R. Riesen et al., CPLANT Proc. Second Extreme Linux Workshop, June 1999.
[23] J.C. Sancho and A. Robles, Improving the Up*/Down* Routing Scheme for Networks of Workstations Proc. Euro-Par 2000, Aug. 2000.
[24] J.C. Sancho, A. Robles, and J. Duato, Effective Strategy to Compute Forwarding Tables for InfiniBand Networks Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing, Sept. 2001.
[25] M.D. Schroeder et al., Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links SRC Research Report 59, DEC, Apr. 1990.
[26] M.D. Schroeder, A.D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray, R.M. Needham, T.L. Rodeheffe, E.H. Satterthwaite, and C.P. Thacker, "Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1,318-1,335, Oct. 1991.
[27] S. L. Scott, J.R. Goodman, The Impact of Pipelined Channels on K-Ary N-Cube Networks IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 2-16, Jan. 1994.
[28] R. Sheifert, Gigabit Ethernet. Addison-Wesley, Apr. 1998.
[29] F. Silla and J. Duato, “High-Performance Routing in Networks of Workstations with Irregular Topology,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 699-719, July 2000.
[30] F. Silla and J. Duato, On the Use of Virtual Channels in Networks of Workstations with Irregular Topology IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 813-828, Aug. 2000.
[31] S.C. Woo et al., The SPLASH-2 Programs: Characterization and Methodological Considerations Proc. 22nd Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, June 1995.

Index Terms:
Networks of workstations, irregular topologies, routing algorithms, deadlock avoidance.
Citation:
Jos? C. Sancho, Antonio Robles, Jos? Duato, "An Effective Methodology to Improve the Performance of the Up*/Down* Routing Algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 740-754, Aug. 2004, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2004.28
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.