This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
An Efficient TDMA Start-Up and Restart Synchronization Approach for Distributed Embedded Systems
August 2004 (vol. 15 no. 8)
pp. 725-739

Abstract—A desired attribute in safety-critical embedded real-time systems is a system time and event synchronization capability on which predictable communication can be established. Focusing on bus-based communication protocols, we present a novel, efficient, and low-cost start-up and restart synchronization approach for TDMA environments. This approach utilizes information about a node's message length that forms a unique sequence to achieve synchronization such that communication overhead can be avoided. We present a fault-tolerant initial synchronization protocol with a bounded start-up time. The protocol avoids start-up collisions by deterministically postponing retries after a collision. We also present a resynchronization strategy that incorporates recovering nodes into synchronization.

[1] V. Claesson, H. Lönn, and N. Suri, Efficient TDMA Synchronization for Distributed Embedded Systems Proc. 20th Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems, pp. 198-201, Oct. 2001.
[2] CAN Specification Version 2.0, Robert Bosch GmbH, 1991.
[3] K.W. Tindell and A. Burns, Guaranteed Message Latencies for Distributed Safety-Critical Hard Real-Time Control Net Dept. of Computer Science, Real-Time Systems Research Group, Univ. of York, Technical Report YCS 229, 1994.
[4] Multi-Transmitter Data Bus, Part 1, Technical Description, Aeronautical Radio, Inc., Dec. 1995.
[5] H. Kopetz, Should Responsive Systems be Event-Triggered or Time Triggered? IEICE Trans. Information and Systems, vol. E76D, no. 11, pp. 1325-1332, 1993.
[6] H. Sivencrona, L.-Å Johannson, and V. Claesson, A Novel Bit-Oriented Communication Concept for Distributed Real-Time Systems, qrcontrol Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Control and Diagnostics in Automotive Applications, 2001.
[7] J. Berwanger, M. Peller, and R. Griessbach, Byteflight A New High-Performance Data Bus System for Safety-Related Applications http:/, 2004.
[8] P.J. Koopman and B.P. Upender, Time Division Multiple Access without a Bus Master United Technologies Research Center, US, Technical Report RR-9500470, 1995.
[9] R.M. Metcalfe and D.R. Boggs, Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks Comm. ACM, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 395-404, 1976.
[10] H. Kopetz and G. Grünsteidl, "TTP: A Time-Triggered Protocol for Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems," Computer, vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1994, pp. 14-23.
[11] H. Kopetz, A. Krüger, R. Hexel, D. Millinger, R. Nossal, R. Pallierer, and C. Temple, Redundancy Management in the Time-Triggered Protocol Technical Univ. of Vienna, Technical Report 4/1996, 1996.
[12] H. Lönn and R. Snedsbøl, "Synchronisation in Safety-Critical Distributed Control Systems," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Architectures and Algorithms for Parallel Processing,Brisbane, Australia, 1995.
[13] N. Suri,M. Hugue, and C. Walter,"Synchronization Issues in Real-Time Systems," Proc. IEEE: Special Issue on Real-Time Computing, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 41-54, Jan. 1994.
[14] P. Ramanathan, K.G. Shin, and R.W. Butler, “Fault-Tolerant Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems,” Computer, vol. 23, no. 10, Oct. 1990.
[15] H. Kopetz and W. Ochsenreiter, Clock Synchronization in Distributed Real Time Systems IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 933-940, Aug. 1987
[16] P. Folkesson, Assessment and Comparison of Physical Fault Injection Techniques PhD dissertation, Chalmers Univ. of Tech nology, 1999.
[17] J. Berwanger, C. Ebner, A. Schedl, R. Belschner, S. Fluhrer, P. Lohrmann, E. Fuchs, D. Millinger, M. Sprachmann, F. Bogenberger, G. Hay, A. Krüger, M. Rausch, W.O. Budde, P. Fuhrmann, and R. Mores, FlexRay The Communication System for Advanced Automotive Control Systems SAE 2001 World Congress, ser. SAE Technical Paper Series, Detroit, Mich., 2001.
[18] B. Rostamzadeh, H. Lönn, R. Snedsbøl, and J. Torin, DACAPO: A Distributed Computer Architecture for Safety-Critical Control Applications Proc. Intelligent Vehicles Symp., pp. 376-381, 1995.
[19] H. Lönn, Initial Synchronization of TDMA Communication in Distributed Real-Time System Proc. 19th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 370-379, 1999.
[20] TTP/C Protocol, Specification of the Basic TTP/C Protocol, first ed., Time-Triggered Technology, TTTech Computertechnik GmbH,, July 1999.
[21] W. Steiner and M. Paulitsch, The Transition from Asynchronous to Synchronous System Operation: An Approach for Distributed Fault-Tolerant Systems Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 329-336, July 2002.

Index Terms:
Data communications, access schemes, real-time and embedded systems, distributed applications.
Vilgot Claesson, Henrik L?, Neeraj Suri, "An Efficient TDMA Start-Up and Restart Synchronization Approach for Distributed Embedded Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 725-739, Aug. 2004, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2004.29
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.