This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Partial Delaunay Triangulation and Degree Limited Localized Bluetooth Scatternet Formation
April 2004 (vol. 15 no. 4)
pp. 350-361

Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of localized scatternet formation for multihop Bluetooth-based personal area ad hoc networks. Nodes are assumed to know their positions and are able to establish connections with any of their neighboring nodes, located within their transmission radius, in the neighbor discovery phase. The next phase of the proposed formation algorithm is optional and can be applied to construct a sparse geometric structure in a localized manner. We propose here a new sparse planar structure, namely, partial Delaunay triangulation (PDT), which can be constructed locally and is denser than other known localized planar structures. In the next mandatory phase, the degree of each node is limited to seven by applying the Yao structure, and the master-slave relations in piconets are formed in created subgraphs. This phase consists of several iterations. In each iteration, undecided nodes with higher keys than any of their undecided neighbors apply the Yao structure to bound the degrees, decide master-slave relations on the remaining edges, and inform all neighbors about either deleting edges or master-slave decisions. To the best of our knowledge, our schemes are the first schemes that construct degree limited (a node has at most seven slaves) and connected piconets in multihop networks, without parking any node. The creation and maintenance require small overhead in addition to maintaining accurate location information for one-hop neighbors. The experiments confirm good functionality of created Bluetooth networks in addition to their fast creation and straightforward maintenance.

[1] Bluetooth SIG, Specification of the Bluetooth System,http:/www.bluetooth.com, 2003.
[2] K.M. Alzoubi, P.-J. Wan, and O. Frieder, Message-Optimal Connected-Dominating-Set Construction for Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Proc. Third ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc'02), 2002.
[3] M. Ajmone-Marsan, C.F. Chiasserini, A. Nucci, G. Carello, and L. de Giovanni, Optimizing the Topology of Bluetooth Wireless Personal Area Networks Proc. INFOCOM, 2002.
[4] S. Basagni, R. Bruno, and C. Petrioli, Performance Evaluation of a New Scatternet Formation Protocol for Multi-Hop Bluetooth Networks Proc. IEEE Wireless Personal Multimedia Comm. WPMC, Oct. 2002.
[5] K. Balaji, S. Kapoor, A.A. Nanavati, and L. Ramachandran, Scatternet Formation Algorithms in the Bluetooth Network. 2001.
[6] S. Basagni, Distributed Clustering for Ad Hoc Networks Proc. Int'l Symp. Parallel Algorithms, Architectures and Networks ISPAN, pp. 310-315, June 1999.
[7] S. Basagni and C. Petrioli, A Scatternet Formation Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks of Bluetooth Devices Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., May 2002.
[8] S. Basagni, R. Bruno, and C. Petrioli, Device Discovery in Bluetooth Networks: A Scatternet Perspective Proc. IFIP-TC6 Networking Conf., May 2002.
[9] S. Basagni, R. Bruno, and C. Petrioli, A Performance Comparison of Scatternet Formation Protocols for Networks of Bluetooth Devices Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom), Mar. 2003.
[10] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm., pp. 48-55, Aug. 1999.
[11] P. Bhagwat and A. Segall, A Routing Vector (RVM) for Routing in Bluetooth Scatternets Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Mobile Multimedia Comm. MoMuC, Nov. 1999.
[12] S. Capkun, M. Hamdi, and J.P. Hubaux, GPS-Free Positioning in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Cluster Computing, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 157-168, 2002.
[13] L. Feeney and M. Nilsson, “Investigating the Energy Consumption of a Wireless Network Interface in an Ad Hoc Networking Environment,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[14] K.R. Gabriel and R.R. Sokal, A New Statistical Approach to Geographic Variation Analysis Systematic Zoology, vol. 18, pp. 259-278, 1969.
[15] R. Guerin, E. Kim, and S. Sarkar, Bluetooth Technology Key Challenges and Initial Research Proc. SCS Comm. Networks and Distributed Systems Modeling and Simulation CNDS, pp. 157-163, 2002.
[16] R. Guerin, S. Sarkar, and E. Vergetis, Forming Connected Topologies in Bluetooth Adhoc Networks. 2002.
[17] P. Gupta and P.R. Kumar, Critical Power for Asymptotic Connectivity in Wireless Networks Stochastic Analysis, Control, Optimization and Applications: A Volume in Honor of W.H. Fleming, W.M. McEneaney, G. Yin, and Q. Zhang (eds.), 1998.
[18] J.C. Haartsen, “The Bluetooth Radio System,” IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 28-36, Feb. 2000.
[19] J. Hightower and G. Borriello, "Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing," Computer, vol. 34, no. 8, Aug. 2001, pp. 57-66.
[20] X.Y. Li, Algorithmic, Geometric and Graphs Issues in Wireless Networks Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 119-140, 2003.
[21] X.Y. Li and I. Stojmenovic, Partial Delaunay Triangulation and Degree Limited Localized Bluetooth Scatternet Formation Proc. Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless (ADHOC-NOW), pp. 17-32, Sept. 2002.
[22] C.R. Lin and M. Gerla, “Adaptive Clustering in Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 16, pp. 1,265–1,275, 1997.
[23] V.B. Misic and J. Misic, Bluetoth Scatternet with a Master-Slave Bridge: A Queuing Theoretical Analysis Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002.
[24] C. Petrioli and S. Basagni, Degree-Constrained Multihop Scatternet Formation for Bluetooth Networks Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov. 2002.
[25] C. Petrioli, S. Basagni, and I. Chlamtac, Configuring BlueStars: Multihop Scatternet Formation for Bluetooth Networks IEEE Trans. Computers, to appear.
[26] B.J. Prabhu and A. Chockalingam, A Routing Protocol and Energy Efficient Techniques in Bluetooth Scatternets Proc. IEEE ICC, 2002.
[27] T. Salonidis, P. Bhagwat, L. Tassiulas, and R. LaMaire, Distributed Topology Construction of Bluetooth Personal Area Networks Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[28] I. Stojmenovic, Dominating Set Based Bluetooth Scatternet Formation with Localized Maintenance Proc. IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. and Workshops, Apr. 2002.
[29] I. Stojmenovic, Routing in Bluetooth with Geometric Structures Enhanced with Long Links pending publication.
[30] G. Toussaint, The Relative Neighborhood Graph of a Finite Planar Set Pattern Recognition, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 261-268, 1980.
[31] Y. Wang, I. Stojmenovic, X.-Y. Li, Bluetooth Scatternet Formation for Single-Hop Ad Hoc Networks Based on Virtual Positions pending publication.
[32] Z. Wang, R.J. Thomas, and Z. Haas, Bluenet, a New Scatternet Formation Scheme Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, 2002.
[33] J. Wu and W. Lou, Forward-Node-Set-Based Broadcast in Clustered Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Proc. GLOBECOM, 2002.
[34] A.C.C. Yao, On Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees in k-Dimensional Spaces and Related Problems SIAM J. Computing, vol. 11, pp. 721-736, 1982.
[35] G.V. Zaruba, S. Basagni, and I. Chlamtac, Bluetrees Scatternet Formation to Enable Bluetooth Based Ad Hoc Networks Proc. IEEE ICC, 2001.

Index Terms:
Bluetooth, scatternet formation, Delaunay triangulation.
Citation:
Xiang-Yang Li, Ivan Stojmenovic, Yu Wang, "Partial Delaunay Triangulation and Degree Limited Localized Bluetooth Scatternet Formation," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 350-361, April 2004, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2004.1271184
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.