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Scheduling with Dynamic Voltage/Speed Adjustment Using Slack Reclamation in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems
July 2003 (vol. 14 no. 7)
pp. 686-700

Abstract—The high power consumption of modern processors becomes a major concern because it leads to decreased mission duration (for battery-operated systems), increased heat dissipation, and decreased reliability. While many techniques have been proposed to reduce power consumption for uniprocessor systems, there has been considerably less work on multiprocessor systems. In this paper, based on the concept of slack sharing among processors, we propose two novel power-aware scheduling algorithms for task sets with and without precedence constraints executing on multiprocessor systems. These scheduling techniques reclaim the time unused by a task to reduce the execution speed of future tasks and, thus, reduce the total energy consumption of the system. We also study the effect of discrete voltage/speed levels on the energy savings for multiprocessor systems and propose a new scheme of slack reservation to incorporate voltage/speed adjustment overhead in the scheduling algorithms. Simulation and trace-based results indicate that our algorithms achieve substantial energy savings on systems with variable voltage processors. Moreover, processors with a few discrete voltage/speed levels obtain nearly the same energy savings as processors with continuous voltage/speed, and the effect of voltage/speed adjustment overhead on the energy savings is relatively small.

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Index Terms:
Real-time systems, multiprocessor, scheduling, slack sharing.
Citation:
Dakai Zhu, Rami Melhem, Bruce R. Childers, "Scheduling with Dynamic Voltage/Speed Adjustment Using Slack Reclamation in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 686-700, July 2003, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2003.1214320
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