This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Decentralized Resource Management for a Distributed Continuous Media Server
November 2002 (vol. 13 no. 11)
pp. 1183-1200

Abstract—Distributed continuous media server (DCMS) architectures are proposed to minimize the communication-storage cost for those continuous media applications that serve a large number of geographically distributed clients. Typically, a DCMS is designed as a pure hierarchy (tree) of centralized continuous media servers. In an earlier work, we proposed a redundant hierarchical topology for DCMS networks, termed RedHi, which can potentially result in higher utilization and better reliability over pure hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on the design of a resource management system for RedHi that can exploit the resources of its DCMS network to achieve these performance objectives. Our proposed resource management system is based on a fully decentralized approach to achieve optimal scalability and robustness. In general, the major drawback of a fully decentralized design is the increase in latency time and communication overhead to locate the requested object. However, as compared to the typically long duration and high resource/bandwidth requirements of continuous media objects, the extra latency and overhead of a decentralized resource management approach become negligible. Moreover, our resource management system collapses three management tasks, 1) object location, 2) path selection, and 3) resource reservation, into one fully decentralized object delivery mechanism, reducing the latency even further. In sum, decentralization of the resource management satisfies our scalability and robustness objectives, whereas collapsing the management tasks helps alleviate the latency and overhead constraints. To achieve a high resource utilization, the object delivery scheme uses our proposed cost function, as well as various object location and resource reservation policies to select and allocate the best streaming path to serve each request. The object delivery scheme is designed as an application layer resource management middleware for the DCMS architecture to be independent of the underlying telecommunication infrastructure. Our experiments show that our resource management system is successful in realization of the higher resource utilization for the DCMS networks with the RedHi topology.

[1] C.N. Judice, E.J. Addeo, M.I. Eiger, and H.L. Lemberg, “Video-on-Demand: A Wideband Service or Myth?” Proc. Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '86), June 1986.
[2] W.D. Sincoskie, “Video-on-Demand: Is It Feasible?” Proc. GLOBECOM '90, vol. 1, pp. 201-205, 1990.
[3] T.D.C. Little and D. Venkatesh, "Prospects for Interactive Video-on-Demand," IEEE MultiMedia, Vol. 1, No. 3, Fall 1994, pp. 14-24.
[4] J. Crowcroft, P.T. Kirstein, and D. Timm, “Multimedia Teleconferencing over International Packet Switched Networks,” Proc. TRICOMM '91, IEEE Conf. Comm. Distributed Applications and Systems, pp. 23-33, 1991.
[5] F.A. Tobagi, “Distance Learning with Digital Video,” IEEE Multimedia, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 90-94, Spring 1995.
[6] B. Furht et al., "Design Issues for Interactive Television Systems," Computer, Vol. 28, No. 9, May 1995, pp. 25-38.
[7] D.P. Anderson and G. Homsy, "A Continuous Media I/O Server and its Synchronization Mechanism," Computer, Vol. 24, No.10, Oct. 1991, pp. 51-57.
[8] B. Ozden, R. Rastogi, and A. Silberschatz, “A Framework for the Storage and Retrieval of Continuous Media Data,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems, May 1995.
[9] S. Ghandeharizadeh, R. Zimmermann, W. Shi, R. Rejaie, D. Ierardi, and T.W. Li, “Mitra: A Scalable Continuous Media Server,” Multimedia Tools and Applications J., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 79-108, Apr. 1997.
[10] C. Chou, L. Golubchik, and J.C.S. Lui, “A Performance Study of Dynamic Replication Techniques in Continuous Media Servers“ Proc. Eighth Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecomm. Systems, pp. 256-263, Aug. 2000.
[11] R. Nagarajan and J.F. Kurose, “On Defining, Computing and Guaranteeing Quality-of-Service in High-Speed Networks,” Proc. INFOCOM '92, vol. 3, pp. 2016-2025, 1992.
[12] J. Kurose, “Open Issues and Challenges in Providing Quality of Service Guarantees in High Speed Networks,” ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 6–15, Jan. 1993.
[13] S. Chen and K. Nahrstedt, An Overview of Quality of Service Routing for the Next Generation of High Speed Networks: Problems and Solutions IEEE Network, 1998.
[14] M.A. Mohamed, "Handwritten Word Recognition Using Generalized Hidden Markov Models," Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, PhD dissertation, 1995.
[15] J.-P. Nussbaumer et. al., "Networking Requirements for Interactive Video on Demand," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communication, Vol. 13, No. 5, June 1995, pp. 779-787.
[16] J. Salehi et al., "Optimal Buffering for the Delivery of Compressed Prerecorded Video," Proc. ACM Special Interest Group on Computer/Communication System Performance (Sigmetrics 96), ACM Press, New York, 1996, pp. 222-231.
[17] D. Aksoy, S. Zdonik, and M.J. Franklin, “Data Staging for On-Demand Broadcast,” Proc. VLDB 2001, Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases, Sept. 2001.
[18] T.Y. Kim, B.H. Roh, and J.K. Kim, “Bandwidth Renegotiation with Traffic Smoothing and Joint Rate Control for VBR MPEG Video over ATM,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 693-703, Aug. 2000.
[19] S.G. Chan and F. Tobagi, “Providing On-Demand Video Services Using Request Batching,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '98), vol. 3, pp. 1716-1722, 1998.
[20] K.C. Almeroth and M.H. Ammar, "The Use of Multicast Delivery to Provide a Scalable and Interactive Video-On-Demand Service," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 14, no. 6, 1996, pp. 1110-1122.
[21] M. Maybury, ed., Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1993.
[22] L.D. Giovanni, A.M. Langellotti, L.M. Patitucci, and L. Petrini, Dimensioning of Hierarchical Storage for Video on Demand Services Proc. IEEE Int'l Computing Conf. (ICC '94), pp. 1739-1743, 1994.
[23] F. Schaffa and J.P. Nussbaumer, “On Bandwidth and Storage Tradeoffs in Multimedia Distribution Networks,” INFOCOM '95 Proc. 14th Ann. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Comm Soc., vol. 3, pp. 1020-1026, 1995.
[24] S.A. Barnett and G.J. Anido, “A Cost Comparison of Distributed and Centralized Approaches to Video-on-Demand,” IEEE J. Selected Areas on Comm., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1,173-1,183, 1996.
[25] C. Shahabi, M. Alshayeji, and S. Wang, “A Redundant Hierarchical Structure for a Distributed Continuous Media Server,” Proc. Fourth European Workshop Interactive Distributed Multimedia Systems and Telecomm. Services (IDMS '97), Sept. 1997.
[26] D.D. Clark,S. Shenker,, and L. Zhang,“Supporting real-time applications inan integrated services packet network: Architecture and mechanism,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 14-26, 1992.
[27] S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An Architecture for Differentiated Services,” RFC Services, Dec. 1998.
[28] J.M. McManus and K.W. Ross, “Video-on-Demand over ATM: Constant-Rate Transmission and Transport,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1087-1098, Aug. 1996.
[29] C.H. Papadimitriou, S. Ramanathan, and P. Venkat Rangan, Information Caching for Delivery of Personalized Video Data on Home Entertainment Channels Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia and Computing Systems, pp. 214-223, May 1994.
[30] R. Ramarao and V. Ramamoorthy, “Architectural Design of On-Demand Video Delivery Systems: The Spatio-Temporal Storage Allocation Problem,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '91), vol. 1, pp. 506-510, 1991.
[31] J.D. Ryoo and S.S. Panwar, “Algorithms for Determining File Distribution in Networks with Multimedia Servers,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '99), vol. 2, pp. 875-879, 1999.
[32] R. Lüling, “Static and Dynamic Mapping of Media Assets on a Network of Distributed Multimedia Information Servers,” Proc. 19th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 253-260, 1999.
[33] K. Kalpakis, K. Dasgupta, and O. Wolfson, “Optimal Placement of Replicas in Trees with Read, Write, and Storage Costs,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 628-637, June 2001.
[34] H.J. Burch and F. Ercal, “Mapping the Internet,” Computer, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 97-102, Apr. 1999.
[35] A. Broido and K. Claffy, “Internet Topology: Connectivity of IP Graphs,” Cooperative Assoc. Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA), July 2001. Available online athttp:/www.cadia.org.
[36] “NS—The Network Simulator,” Information about NS is availabale athttp://www.isi.edu/nsnamns/, 2002.
[37] C. Leopold, Parallel and Distributed Computing: A Survey of Models, Paradigms, and Approaches, first ed. John Wiley, 2001.
[38] S. Fortune and J. Wyllie, "Parallelism in Random Access Machines," Proc. 10th Ann Symp. Theory of Computing, pp. 114-118, 1978.
[39] B. Awerbuch and D. Peleg, “Concurrent Online Tracking of Mobile Users,” SIGCOM Symp. Communication Architectures and Protocols, Oct. 1991.
[40] A. Dan, D. Sitaram, and P. Shahabuddin, Scheduling Policies for an On-Demand Video Server with Batching Proc. Second ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia, pp. 15-23, 1994.
[41] C. Aggarwal, J. Wolf, and P. Yu, "On Optimal batching Policies for Video-On-Demand Storage Servers," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS 96), IEEE Computer Soc. Press, 1996, pp. 253-258.
[42] K.A. Hua, Y. Cai, and S. Sheu, “Patching: A Multicast Technique for True Video-On-Demand Services,” Proc. Sixth ACM Int'l Multimedia Conf. (ACM MULTIMEDIA '98), pp. 191-200, Sept. 1998.
[43] A.J. Smith, “Bibliography on Paging and Related Topics,” Operating Systems Review, vol. 12, pp. 39-56, Oct. 1978.
[44] H. Schulzrinne, A. Rao, and R. Lanphier, “Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP),” RFC 2326, Apr. 1998.
[45] R. Perlman, “Fault-Tolerant Broadcast of Routing Information,” Computer Networks, vol. 7, pp. 395-405, Dec. 1983.
[46] R. Zimmermann et al., "Yima: Design and Evaluation of a Streaming Media System for Residential Broadband Services," Proc. VLDB 2001 Workshop Databases in Telecommunications (DBTel 01), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001, pp. 116-125.
[47] A. Dan, D. Sitaram, and P. Shahabuddin, Scheduling Policies for an On-Demand Video Server with Batching Proc. Second ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia, pp. 15-23, 1994.
[48] F.J. Van Steen, H.P. Homburg, and A.S. Tanenbaum, “Locating Objects in Wide-Area Systems,” IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 104-109, Jan. 1998.
[49] C.G. Plaxton, R. Rajaraman, and A.W. Richa, “Accessing Nearby Copies of Replicated Objects in a Distributed Environment,” Theory of Computing Systems, vol. 32, pp. 241-280, 1999.
[50] K. Obraczka, P.B. Danzig, and S.-H. Li, "Internet Resource Discovery Services," Computer, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 8-22, Sept. 1993.
[51] D.W. Brubeck and L.A. Rowe, “Hierarchical Storage Management in a Distributed VoD System,” IEEE Multimedia, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 37-47, Fall 1996.
[52] H. Yu and C.P. Low, and Y. Atif, “Design Issues on Video-on-Demand Resource Management,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Networks (ICON 2000), pp. 199-203, 2000.
[53] B. Awerbuch and D. Peleg, "Sparse Partitions," Proc. 1990 IEEE 31th Ann. Symp. Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 503-513, 1990.
[54] Y. Bartal, A. Fiat, and Y. Rabani, "Competitive Algorithms for Distributed Data Management," Proc. 24th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Compting,Victoria, B.C., Canada, May 1992.
[55] S. Stavros, K. Nectarios, and P. George, “A Distributed Media Server Management Scheme,” Proc. 10th MELECON 2000, pp. 6-10, 2000.
[56] C.D. Cranor et al., "Enhanced Streaming Services in a Content Distribution Network," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 5, no. 4, July 2001, pp. 66-75.
[57] G. Malkin, “RIP Version 2,” RFC 2453, Nov. 1998.
[58] J. Moy, “OSPF Version 2,” RFC 2328, Apr. 1998.
[59] L. Zhang, S. Deering, D. Estrin, S. Shenker, and D. Zappala, "RSVP: A New Resource Reservation Protocol," IEEE Network, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 8-18, Sept. 1993.
[60] C. Topolcic, “Experimental Internet Stream Protocol, Version 2 (ST-II),” RFC 1190, Oct. 1990.
[61] F. Cao, J. Smith, and K. Takahashi, "An Architecture of Distributed Media Servers for Supporting Guaranteed QoS and Media Indexing," Proc. Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS 99), IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1999, pp. 122-129.
[62] J. Huang, Y. Wang, N.R. Vaidyanathan, and F. Cao, “GRMS: A Global Resource Management System for Distributed QoS and Criticality Support,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), pp. 157-166, June 1997.

Index Terms:
Distributed continuous media servers, decentralized resource management, distributed multimedia systems, content delivery networks, distributed information systems, video-on-demand.
Citation:
Cyrus Shahabi, Farnoush Banaei-Kashani, "Decentralized Resource Management for a Distributed Continuous Media Server," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1183-1200, Nov. 2002, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2002.1058101
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.