This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Efficient Location of Discrepancies in Multiple Replicated Large Files
June 2002 (vol. 13 no. 6)
pp. 597-610

We present a new technique for locating corrupted page copies, outdated page copies, and missing page copies in multiple replicated large file copies. We present four communication models and four communication protocols to be used in this technique. These four protocols are classified according to using or not using a coordinator site, groups, and/or a master signature. Whereas, other previous works consider locating only corrupted page copies, our protocols can locate outdated page copies and missing page copies as well as corrupted page copies. In addition, whereas other previous works are based on majority rule to determine the correct copy, our protocols are not. The performances of these protocols are measured in terms of the number of transmissions and the number of transmitted signatures. We compare these performances with one another and, also, compare them to the performances of other previous works.

[1] G. Gardarin and W. Chu, “A Distributed Control Algorithm for Reliably and Consistently Updating Replicated Databases,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 21, pp. 1060-1068, Dec. 1980.
[2] G. Schlageter, “Optimistic Methods for Concurrency Control in Distributed Database Systems,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases, pp. 125-130, 1981.
[3] B. Bhargava and L. Lilien, “Feature Analysis of Selected Database Recovery Techniques,” Proc. Am. Federation of Information Processing Soc. (AFIPS-NCC), pp. 543-554, 1981.
[4] D.S. Parker, G.J. Popek Jr., G. Rudisin, A. Stoughton, B.J. Walker, E. Walton, J.M. Chow, D. Edwards, S. Kiser, and C. Kine, “Detection of Mutual Inconsistency in Distributed Systems,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 9, pp. 240-247, May 1983.
[5] P.J. Leu and B. Bhargava, “Multidimensional Timestamp Protocols for Concurrency Control,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 13, pp. 1238-1253, Dec. 1987.
[6] J.J. Metzner, “A Parity Structure for Large Remotely Located Replicated Data File,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 32, pp. 727-730, Aug. 1983.
[7] J.J. Metzner, “Reliable and Efficient Broadcast of Files to a Group of Locally Interconnected Stations,” Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1762-1767, Dec. 1986.
[8] J.J. Metzner and E.J. Kapturowski, "A General Decoding Technique Applicable to Replicated File Disagreement Location and Concatenated Code Decoding," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 36, pp. 911-917, July 1990.
[9] J.M. Metzner, "Efficient Replicated Remote File Comparison," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 651-660, May 991.
[10] A. Abdennadher and J.J. Metzner, “Use of Gauss-Jordan Matrix Reduction in the Reconstruction of a Correct File Copy From Erroneous Copies,” Proc. 27th Ann. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, pp. 333-340, 1994.
[11] D. Davcev and W. Burkhard, “Consistency and Recovery Control for Replicated Files,” Proc. 10th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles, pp. 87-96, 1985.
[12] D. Davcev, “A Dynamic Voting Scheme in Distributed Systems,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 93-97, Jan. 1989.
[13] W.K. Fuchs, K.-L. Wu, and J.A. Abraham, “Low-Cost Comparison and Diagnosis of Large Remotely Located Files,” Proc. Symp. Reliability of Distributed Software and Database Systems, pp. 35-39, Jan. 1986.
[14] W.K. Fuchs, K.-L. Wu, and J.A. Abraham, “Comparing and Diagnosis of Large Replicated Files,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 13, pp. 15-22, Jan. 1987.
[15] W.W. Chu, J. Hellerstein, and M.-T. Lan, “The Exclusive-Writer Protocol: A Low Cost Approach for Updating Replicated Files in Distributed Real Time Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 269-277, 1982.
[16] T. Madej, “An Application of Group Testing to the File Comparison Problem,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 237-243, June 1989.
[17] S. Rangarajan and D. Fussell, “Rectifying Corrupted Files in Distributed File Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 446-453, May 1991.
[18] T. Schwarz, R.W. Bowdidge, and W.A. Burkhard, “Low Cost Comparisons of File Copies,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 196-202, July 1990.
[19] J. Tang and N. Natarajan, “A Scheme for Maintaining Consistency and Availability of Replicated Files in a Partitioned Distributed System,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 530-537, Feb. 1989.
[20] J. Jing, W. Du, A. Elmagarmid, and O. Bukhres, “Maintaining Consistency of Replicated Data in Multidatabase Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 552-559, June 1994.
[21] J.L. Carroll, D.D.E. Long, and J.-F. Paris, “Block-Level Consistency of Replicated Files,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 146-153, 1987.
[22] D. Barbara and R.J. Lipton, “A Class of Randomized Strategies for Low-Cost Comparison of File Copies,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems vol. 2, pp. 160-170, Apr. 1991.
[23] D. Barbara, H. Garcia-Molina, and B. Feijoo, “Exploiting Symmetries for Low-Cost Comparison of File Copies,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 471-479, June 1988.
[24] J.B. Dugan and G. Ciardo, “Stochastic Petri Net Analysis of a Replicated File System,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 394-401, Apr. 1989.
[25] A. Hac, X. Jin, and J.-H. Soo, “Algorithms for File Replication in a Distributed System,” Proc. 13th Conf. Local Computer Networks, pp. 206-214, Oct. 1988.
[26] B.S. Bacarisse and S.B. Baydere, “A Low Cost File Replication Algorithm,” Proc. COMPCON Spring '89, 34th IEEE Computer Soc. Int'l Conf.: Intellectual Leverage, pp. 191-196, Mar. 1989.
[27] B.S. Bacarisse and S.B. Baydere, “Reliability of Replicated Files in Partitioned Networks,” Proc. Workshop Management of Replicated Data, pp. 98-101, Nov. 1990.
[28] S. Jajodia and D. Mutchler, “A Pessimistic Consistency Control Algorithm for Replicated Files which Achieves High Availability,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 39-46, Jan. 1989.
[29] P. Kumar, “Coping with Conflicts in an Optimistically Replicated File System,” Proc. Workshop the Management of Replicated Data, pp. 60-64, Nov. 1990.
[30] R.G. Guy, G.J. Popek, and T.W. Page Jr., “Consistency Algorithms for Optimistic Replication,” Proc. 1993 Int'l Conf. Network Protocols, pp. 250-261, Oct. 1993.
[31] P. Hu and S.R. Wilbur, “Low Storage Cost, Partition-Tolerant Dynamic Algorithms for Replicated File Systems,” Proc. CompEuro '92: Computer Systems and Software Eng., pp. 89-94, May 1992.
[32] K.A.S. Abdel-Ghaffar and A.E. Abbadi, “Comparing Multiple File Copies Using Minimal Communication,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory and Its Applications, pp. 171, June 1994.
[33] K.A.S. Abdel-Ghaffar and A.E. Abbadi, “Optimal Detection of a Corrupted Page in a Replicated File,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 544-551, June 1994.
[34] K.A.S. Abdel-Ghaffar and A.E. Abbadi, “Efficient Detection of Corrupted Pages in a Replicated File,” Proc. 12th ACM Symp. Principles on Distributed Computing, pp. 219-227, Aug. 1993.
[35] K.A.S. Abdel-Ghaffar and A.E. Abbadi, “Efficient Detection of Discrepancies in Multiple File Copies,” Distributed Computing, vol. 11, pp. 59-72, 1998.
[36] A.W. Fu and S.-C. Chau, “Efficient Detection of Corruption in a Replicated File Using a Reed Solomon Decoder,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory and Its Applications, pp. 713-716, Sept. 1996.
[37] A.W. Fu and S.-C. Chau, “Locating More Corruptions in a Replicated File,” Proc. 15th Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS), pp. 168-177, Oct. 1996.
[38] A.W. Fu and S.-C. Chau, “Locating Corruptions in a Replicated File in a Distributed Environment,” J. Supercomputing, vol. 13, pp. 71-97, 1999.
[39] F.K. Hwang and W. Zang, “Detecting Corrupted Pages in M Replicated Large Files,” IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems vol. 8, pp. 1241-1245, Dec. 1997.
[40] R.E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1983.
[41] K.A.S. Abdel-Ghaffar and A.E. Abbadi, “An Optimal Strategy for Comparing File Copies,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 5, pp. 87-93, Jan. 1994.

Index Terms:
Replicated files, data consistency, data corruption, fault location, file comparison, communication efficiency, signature.
Citation:
Changsik Park, John J. Metzner, "Efficient Location of Discrepancies in Multiple Replicated Large Files," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 597-610, June 2002, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2002.1011414
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.