This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Loop-Free Hybrid Single-Path/Flooding Routing Algorithms with Guaranteed Delivery for Wireless Networks
October 2001 (vol. 12 no. 10)
pp. 1023-1032

Abstract—In a localized routing algorithm, each node makes forwarding decisions solely based on the position of itself, its neighbors, and its destination. In distance, progress, and direction-based approaches (reported in the literature), when node A wants to send or forward message m to destination node D, it forwards m to its neighbor C which is closest to D (has best progress toward D, whose direction is closest to the direction of D, respectively) among all neighbors of A. The same procedure is repeated until D, if possible, is eventually reached. The algorithms are referred to as GEDIR, MFR, and DIR when a common failure criterion is introduced: The algorithm stops if the best choice for the current node is the node from which the message came. We propose 2-hop GEDIR, DIR, and MFR methods in which node A selects the best candidate node C among its 1-hop and 2-hop neighbors according to the corresponding criterion and forwards m to its best 1-hop neighbor among joint neighbors of A and C. We then propose flooding GEDIR and MFR and hybrid single-path/flooding GEDIR and MFR methods which are the first localized algorithms (other than full flooding) to guarantee the message delivery (in a collision-free environment). We show that the directional routing methods are not loop-free, while the GEDIR and MFR-based methods are inherently loop free. The simulation experiments, with static random graphs, show that GEDIR and MFR have similar success rates, which is low for low degree graphs and high for high degree ones. When successful, their hop counts are near the performance of the shortest path algorithm. Hybrid single-path/flooding GEDIR and MFR methods have low communication overheads. The results are also confirmed by experiments with moving nodes and MAC layer.

[1] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V.R. Syrotiuk, and B.A. Woodward, “A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM),” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 76-84, 1988.
[2] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.C. Hu, and J. Jetcheva, “A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols,” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 85-97, 1998.
[3] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, “Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm., pp. 48-55, Aug. 1999.
[4] S. Capkun, M. Hamdi, and J.P. Hubaux, “GPS-Free Positioning in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 2001.
[5] D. Camara and A.F. Loureiro, “A Novel Routing Algorithm for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 2000.
[6] S. Datta, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Wu, “Internal Nodes and Shortcut Based Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Wireless Networks,” Cluster Computing, 2001.
[7] D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, and S. Kumar, “Next Century Challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks,” Proc. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 263-270, 1999.
[8] G.G. Finn, “Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks,” Research Report ISU/RR-87-180, Inst. for Scientific Information, Mar. 1987.
[9] S. Giordano, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing Handbook, I. Stojmenovic, ed., John Wiley&Sons, 2001.
[10] W.R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-Efficient Routing Protocols for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 2000.
[11] W.R. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, “Adaptive Protocols for Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 174-185, 1999.
[12] T.C. Hou and V.O.K Li, “Transmission Range Control in Multihop Packet Radio Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 38-44, 1986.
[13] IETF Manet charter,http://www/ietf.org/html.chartersmanet-charter.html . 2001.
[14] D. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, eds., Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[15] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks,” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 243-254, Aug. 2000.
[16] J.M. Kahn, R.H. Katz, and K.S.J. Pister, “Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for 'Smart Dust',” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 271-278, 1999.
[17] E. Kranakis, H. Singh, and J. Urrutia, “Compass Routing on Geometric Networks,” Proc. 11th Canadian Conf. Computational Geometry, Aug. 1999.
[18] Y.B. Ko and N.H. Vaidya, “Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 66-75, 1998.
[19] J. Li, J. Jannotti, D.S.J. De Couto, D.R. Karger, and R. Morris, “A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing,” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 120-130, 2000.
[20] S. Lindsey, K. Sivalingam, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power Optimization in Routing Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks,” Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing Handbook, I. Stojmenovic, ed., John Wiley&Sons, 2001.
[21] J.P. Macker and M.S. Corson, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and the IETF,” ACM Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 9-14, 1998.
[22] R. Nelson and L. Kleinrock, “The Spatial Capacity of a Slotted ALOHA Multihop Packet Radio Network with Capture,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 684-694, 1984.
[23] W. Peng and X.-C. Lu, “On the Reduction of Broadcast Redundancy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. First Ann. Workshop Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, pp. 129-130, Aug. 2000.
[24] A. Qayyum, L. Viennot, and A. Laouiti, “Multipoint Relaying: An Efficient Technique for Flooding in Mobile Wireless Networks,” Research Report RR-3898, INRIA, Mar. 2000. Also available atwww.inria.fr/RRRTRR-3898.html.
[25] S. Ramanathan and M. Steenstrup, “A Survey of Routing Techniques for Mobile Communication Networks,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 89-104, 1996.
[26] E.M. Royer and C.K. Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE Personal Comm., pp. 46-55, Apr. 1999.
[27] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, “Power-Aware Localized Routing in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., pp. 371-376, May 2000.
[28] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, “Geographic Distance Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Technical Report TR-98-10, Computer Science Dept., SITE, Univ. of Ottawa, Dec. 1998.
[29] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, “GEDIR: Loop-Free Location Based Routing in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IASTED Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, pp. 1025-1028, Nov. 1999.
[30] I. Stojmenovic, “A Routing Strategy and Quorum Based Location Update Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Technical Report TR-99-09, Computer Science Dept., SITE, Univ. of Ottawa, Sept. 1999.
[31] I. Stojmenovic, “Voronoi Diagram and Convex Hull Based Geocasting and Routing in Wireless Networks,” Technical Report TR-99-11, SITE, Univ. of Ottawa, Dec. 1999. Also available atwww.site.uottawa.ca~ivan.
[32] I. Stojmenovic, “Home Agent Based Location Update and Destination Search Schemes in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Technical Report TR-99-10, Computer Science Dept., SITE, Univ. of Ottawa, Sept. 1999.
[33] I. Stojmenovic, “Location Updates for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,” Handbook on Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, Wiley&Sons, 2001.
[34] M. Seddigh, J. Solano Gonzalez, and I. Stojmenovic, “RNG and Internal Node Based Broadcasting Algorithms for Wireless One-to-One Networks,” ACM Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 5, no. 2, 2001.
[35] I. Stojmenovic, M. Seddigh, and J. Zunic, “Internal Node Based Broadcasting in Wireless Networks,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 2001.
[36] I. Stojmenovic, M. Russell, and B. Vukojevic, “Depth First Search and Location Based Localized Routing and QoS Routing in Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing, pp. 173-180, Aug. 2000.
[37] S. Singh, M. Woo, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Conf. Mobile Computing MOBICOM, pp. 181-190, 1998.
[38] H. Takagi and L. Kleinrock, “Optimal Transmission Ranges for Randomly Distributed Packet Radio Terminals,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 246-257, 1984.
[39] J. Urrutia, “Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Geometric and Wireless Networks,” Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing Handbook, I. Stojmenovic, ed., John Wiley&Sons, 2001.

Index Terms:
Routing, wireless networks, distributed algorithms, shortest path, broadcasting.
Citation:
Ivan Stojmenovic, Xu Lin, "Loop-Free Hybrid Single-Path/Flooding Routing Algorithms with Guaranteed Delivery for Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1023-1032, Oct. 2001, doi:10.1109/71.963415
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.