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Ahuva W. Mu'alem, Dror G. Feitelson, "Utilization, Predictability, Workloads, and User Runtime Estimates in Scheduling the IBM SP2 with Backfilling," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 529543, June, 2001.  
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@article{ 10.1109/71.932708, author = {Ahuva W. Mu'alem and Dror G. Feitelson}, title = {Utilization, Predictability, Workloads, and User Runtime Estimates in Scheduling the IBM SP2 with Backfilling}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems}, volume = {12}, number = {6}, issn = {10459219}, year = {2001}, pages = {529543}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/71.932708}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems TI  Utilization, Predictability, Workloads, and User Runtime Estimates in Scheduling the IBM SP2 with Backfilling IS  6 SN  10459219 SP529 EP543 EPD  529543 A1  Ahuva W. Mu'alem, A1  Dror G. Feitelson, PY  2001 KW  Parallel job scheduling KW  backfilling KW  runtime estimates KW  workload modeling KW  performance metrics. VL  12 JA  IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems ER   
Abstract—Scheduling jobs on the IBM SP2 system and many other distributedmemory MPPs is usually done by giving each job a partition of the machine for its exclusive use. Allocating such partitions in the order in which the jobs arrive (FCFS scheduling) is fair and predictable, but suffers from severe fragmentation, leading to low utilization. This situation led to the development of the EASY scheduler which uses aggressive backfilling: Small jobs are moved ahead to fill in holes in the schedule, provided they do not delay the
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