This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Design of Fault-Tolerant Large-Scale VOD Servers: With Emphasis on High-Performance and Low-Cost
April 2001 (vol. 12 no. 4)
pp. 363-386

Abstract—Recent technological advances in digital signal processing, data compression techniques, and high-speed communication networks have made Video-on-Demand (VOD) servers feasible. A challenging task in such systems is servicing multiple clients simultaneously while satisfying real-time requirements of continuous delivery of objects at specified rates. To accomplish these tasks and realize economies of scale associated with servicing a large user population, a VOD server requires a large disk subsystem. Although a single disk is fairly reliable, a large disk farm can have an unacceptably high probability of disk failure. Furthermore, due to real-time constraints, the reliability requirements of VOD systems are even more stringent than those of traditional information systems. Traditional RAID solutions are inadequate due to poor resource usage. Thus, in this paper, we present alternative schemes which provide a high degree of reliability at low disk storage, bandwidth, and memory costs for on-demand multimedia servers. Moreover, we discuss some of the main issues and trade-offs associated with providing fault tolerance in multidisk VOD systems. We would like to impress upon the reader that one of the main points of this paper is the exposition of trade-offs and issues associated with designing fault-tolerant VOD servers. It is not the case that one fault tolerance scheme is absolutely better than another, but rather that one must understand the trade-offs as well as one's system constraints and then choose a fault tolerance scheme accordingly.

[1] “NonStop SQL, A Distributed, High-Performance, High-ReliablityImplementaion of SQL,” Technical Report No. 82317, Tandem Database Group, Mar. 1987.
[2] “DBC/1012 Database Computer System Manual Release 2.0,” Technical Report Document No. C10-0001-02, Teradata Corporation, Nov. 1985.
[3] S. Berson, S. Ghandeharizadeh, R.R. Muntz, and X. Ju, “Staggered Striping in Multimedia Information Systems,” Proc. SIGMOD, 1994.
[4] D. Bitton and J. Gray, “Disk Shadowing,” Very Large Data Bases, pp. 331–338, 1988.
[5] M. Chen, D. Kandlur, and P. Yu, “Optimization of the Grouped Sweeping Scheduling (GSS) with Heterogeneous Multimedia Streams,” Proc. ACM Multimedia '93, pp. 235–242, 1993.
[6] G. Copeland and T. Keller, “A Comparison of High-Availability Media RecoveryTechniques,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 98–109, 1989.
[7] D. Le Gall, “MPEG: A Video Compression Standard for Multimedia Applications,” Comm. ACM, Apr. 1991.
[8] S. Ghandeharizadeh and R.R. Muntz, “Design and Implementation of Scalable Continuous Media Servers,” Special issue of Parallel Computing J. Parallel Data Servers and Applications, Jan. 1998.
[9] S. Ghandeharizadeh and C. Shahabi, “On Multimedia Repositories, Personal Computers, and Hierarchical Storage,” Proc. Second ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia, Oct. 1994.
[10] L. Golubchik, J.C.-S. Lui, and M. Papadopouli, “A Survey of Approaches to Fault Tolerant VOD Storage Servers: Techniques, Analysis, and Comparison,” In the special issue of Parallel Computing J. Parallel Data Servers and Applications, pp. 123–155, Jan. 1998.
[11] L. Golubchik, J.C.-S. Lui, E. de Souza e Silva, and H.R. Gail, “Evaluation of Tradeoffs in Resource Management Techniques for Multimedia Storage Servers,” Technical Report CS-TR\#3904, Univ. of Maryland, 1998.
[12] L. Golubchik and R.R. Muntz, “Fault Tolerance Issues in Data Declustering for Parallel Database Systems,” Bull. Technical Committee on Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 14–28, Sept. 1994.
[13] L. Golubchik, J.C.-S. Lui, and R.R. Muntz, “Chained Declustering: Load Balancing and Robustness to Skew and Failure,” Proc. RIDE-TQP Workshop, Feb. 1992.
[14] J. Gray, B. Horst, and M. Walker, “Parity Striping of Disk Arrays: Low-cost Reliable Storage with Acceptable Throughput,” Proc. Very Large Data Base Conf., pp. 148–172, 1990.
[15] H. Hsiao and D.J. DeWitt, “Chained Declustering: A New Availability Strategy for Multiprocessor Database Machines,” Proc. Data Eng., pp. 456–465, 1990.
[16] R. Katz, G. Gibson, and D. Patterson, “Disk System Architectures for High Performance Computing,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 1,842–1,858, Dec. 1989.
[17] J. Menon and D. Mattson, “Comparison of Sparing Alternatives for Disk Arrays,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, 1992.
[18] R.R. Muntz and J.C.-S. Lui, “Performance Analysis of Disk Arrays Under Failure,” Proc. Very Large Data Base Conf., pp. 162–173, 1990.
[19] B. Ozden, A. Biliris, R. Rastogi, and A. Silberschatz, “A Low-Cost Storage Server for Movie on Demand Databases,” Proc. 20th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, Sept. 1994.
[20] D.A. Patterson, G. Gibson, and R.H. Katz, “A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID),” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., pp. 109–116, 1988.
[21] S.M. Ross, A First Course in Probability, fifth ed., Prentice Hall, 1988.
[22] C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes, "An Introduction to Disk Drive Modeling," Computer, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 17-28, Mar. 1994.
[23] Seagate Hawk 1LP Family: ST31200N/ND/NC and ST3620N/NC, Product Manual, Volume 1.
[24] F.A. Tobagi, J. Pang, R. Baird, and M. Gang, “Streaming RAID—A Disk Array Management System For Video Files,” Proc. ACM Multimedia Conf., pp. 393–399, 1993.
[25] P.S. Yu, M.-S. Chen, and D.D. Kandlur, “Grouped Sweeping Scheduling for DASD-based Multimedia Storage Management,” Multimedia Systems, vol. 1, pp. 99–109, 1993.

Index Terms:
Fault tolerance, multimedia, multidisk systems, storage servers, video-on-demand.
Citation:
Leana Golubchik, Richard R. Muntz, Cheng-Fu Chou, Steven Berson, "Design of Fault-Tolerant Large-Scale VOD Servers: With Emphasis on High-Performance and Low-Cost," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 363-386, April 2001, doi:10.1109/71.920587
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.