This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Efficient Fault-Tolerant Routing in Multihop Optical WDM Networks
October 1999 (vol. 10 no. 10)
pp. 1012-1025

Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of efficient routing in unreliable multihop optical networks supported by Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). We first define a new cost model for routing in (optical) WDM networks that is more general than the existing models. Our model takes into consideration not only the cost of wavelength access and conversion but also the delay for queuing signals arriving at different input channels that share the same output channel at the same node. We then propose a set of efficient algorithms in a reliable WDM network on the new cost model for each of the three most important communication patterns— multiple point-to-point routing, multicast, and multiple multicast. Finally, we show how to obtain a set of efficient algorithms in an unreliable WDM network with up to $f$ faulty optical channels and wavelength conversion gates. Our strategy is to first enhance the physical paths constructed by the algorithms for reliable networks to ensure success of fault-tolerant routing, and then to route among the enhanced paths to establish a set of fault-free physical routes to complete the corresponding routing request for each of the communication patterns.

[1] A. Agrawal, A. Bar-Noy, D. Coppersmith, R. Ramaswami, B. Schieber, and M. Sudan, “Efficient Routing in Optical Networks,” J. ACM, vol. 46, pp. 973–1,001, 1996.
[2] Y. Aumann and Y. Rabani, “Improved Bounds for All Optical Routing,” Proc. Sixth Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '95), pp. 567–576, 1995.
[3] R.A. Barry and P.A. Humblet, “On the Number of Wavelengths and Switches in All-Optical Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm. (Part I), pp. 583–591, 1994.
[4] B. Beauqier, J.C. Gargano, S. Perenees, P. Hell, and U. Vaccaro, “Graph Problems Arising from Wavelength-Routing in All-Optical Networks,” Proc. Second Workshop Optics and Computer Science (WOCS), 1997.
[5] K.-M. Chan and T.-S. Yum, “Analysis of Least Congested Path Routing in WDM Lightwave Networks,” Globecom, pp. 962–969, 1994.
[6] K.W. Cheung, “Scalable, Fault-Tolerant 1-Hop Wavelength Routing,” Globecom, pp. 1,240–1,244, 1991.
[7] I. Chlamtac, A. Farag, and T. Zhang, “Lightpath (Wavelength) Routing in Large WDM Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Comm., vol. 14, pp. 909–913, 1996.
[8] I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath Communications: A Novel Approach to High Bandwidth Optical WAN's,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 40, pp. 1,171–1,182, 1992.
[9] E.W. Dijkstra, “A Note on Two Problems in Connexion with Graphs,” Numerische Mathematik, vol. 1, pp. 269–271, 1959.
[10] T. Erlebach and K. Jansen, “Scheduling of Virtual Connections in Fast Networks,” Proc. Fourth Workshop Parallel Systems and Algorithms (PASA '96), pp. 13–32, 1996.
[11] J.C. Gargano, P. Hell, and S. Perenees, “Colouring All Directed Paths in a Symmetric Tree with Applications to WDM Routing,” Proc. ICALP '97, pp. 505–515, 1997.
[12] L. Gargano, “Limited Wavelength Conversion in All-Optical Networks,” Proc. 25th Int'l Colloquium Automata, Languages and Programming, pp. 544-555, 1998.
[13] P.E. Green, Fiber-Optic Communication Networks. Prentice Hall, 1992.
[14] K. Kaklamanis, G. Persiano, T. Erlebach, and K. Jansen, “Constrained Bipartite Edge Coloring with Applications to Wavelength Routing,” Proc. ICALP '97, pp. 460–470, 1997.
[15] L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A Fast Algorithm for Steiner Trees,” Acta Informatica, vol. 15, pp.141–145, 1981.
[16] K. Bharath-Kumar and J. M. Jaffe, “Routing to Multiple Destinations in Computer Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 31, pp. 343–351, 1983.
[17] E. Kumar and E. Schwabe, “Improved Access to Optical Bandwidth in Trees,” Proc. Eighth Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '97), pp. 437–44, 1997.
[18] H.-M. Lee and G.J. Chang, “Set-to-Set Broadcasting in Communication Networks,” Discrete Applied Math., vol. 40, pp. 411–421, 1992.
[19] K. Li, Y. Pan, and S.Q. Zheng, eds., Parallel Computing Using Optical Interconnections. Kluwer Academic, 1998 (forthcoming).
[20] W. Liang, G. Havas, and X. Shen, “Improved Lightpath Routing in Large WDM Networks,” Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 516–523, 1998.
[21] W. Liang and H. Shen, “Multicast and Broadcast in Large WDM Networks,” Proc. 12th Int'l Parallel Processing Symp (IPPS/SPDP), pp. 365–369, 1998.
[22] R. Malli, X. Zhang, C. Qiao, “Benefit of Multicasting in All-Optical WDM Networks,” Conf. All-Optical Networks (SPIE), vol. 3531,pp. 209-220, 1998.
[23] G. De Marco, L. Gargano, and U. Vaccaro, “Concurrent Multicast in Weighted Networks,” manuscript.
[24] A.D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures: The Application of Optical Concepts to Next Generation Computers. John Wiley and Sons, 1991.
[25] M. Mihail, K. Kaklamanis, and S. Rao, “Efficient Access to Optical Bandwidth,” Proc. FOCS '95, pp. 548–557, 1995.
[26] B. Mukherjee, IEEE Comm., Jan./Feb. 1999.
[27] Y. Ofek and B. Yener, “Reliable Concurrent Multicast from Bursty Sources,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '96, pp.1,433–1,441, 1996.
[28] P. Raghavan and E. Upfal, “Efficient Routing in All-Optical Networks,” Proc. STOC '94, pp. 133–143, 1994.
[29] R. Ramaswami, “Multi-Wavelength Lightwave Networks for Computer Communication,” IEEE Comm., vol. 31, pp. 78–88, 1993.
[30] G.N. Rouskas and M.H. Ammar, “Analysis and Optimization of Transmission Schedules for Single-Hop WDM Networks,” Infocom '93, pp. 1342–49, 1993.
[31] G.N. Rouskas and M.H. Ammar, “Multi-Destination Communication over Tunable-Receiver Single-Hop WDM Networks,” Technical Report, TR-96-12, Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University.
[32] L.H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-Trees: Optical Multicasting for Improved Performance in Wavelength-Routed Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67-73, Feb. 1999.
[33] H. Shen, Efficient Multiple Multicasting in Hypercubes J. Systems Architecture, vol. 43, no. 9, Aug. 1997.
[34] H. Shen and W. Liang, “Efficient Multiple Multicast in WDM Networks,” Proc. 1998 Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, pp. 1,028–1,033, 1998.
[35] R.J. Vitter and D.H.C. Du, “Distributed Computing with High-Speed Optical Networks,” Computer, vol. 26,pp. 8–18, 1993.
[36] S.S. Wagner and H. Kobrinski, “WDM Applications in Broadband Telecommunication Networks,” IEEE Comm., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 22–30, 1989.
[37] Z. Zhang and A.S. Acampora, “A Heuristic Wavelength Assignment Algorithm for Multihop WDM Networks with Wavelength Routing and Wavelength Reuse,” IEEE J. Networking, vol. 3, pp. 281–288, 1995.

Index Terms:
Fault tolerance, multicast, point-to-point routing, queuing delay, WDM network
Hong Shen, Francis Chin, Yi Pan, "Efficient Fault-Tolerant Routing in Multihop Optical WDM Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1012-1025, Oct. 1999, doi:10.1109/71.808141
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.