This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
An Efficient Fault-Tolerant Multicast Routing Protocol with Core-Based Tree Techniques
October 1999 (vol. 10 no. 10)
pp. 984-1000

Abstract—In this paper, we design and analyze an efficient fault-tolerant multicast routing protocol. Reliable multicast communication is critical for the success of many Internet applications. Multicast routing protocols with core-based tree techniques (CBT) have been widely used because of their scalability and simplicity. We enhance the CBT protocol with fault tolerance capability and improve its efficiency and effectiveness. With our strategy, when a faulty component is detected, some pre-defined backup path(s) is (are) used to bypass the faulty component and enable the multicast communication to continue. Our protocol only requires that routers near the faulty component be reconfigured, thus reducing the runtime overhead without compromising much of the performance. Our approach is in contrast to other approaches that often require relatively large tree reformation when faults occur. These global methods are usually costly and complicated in their attempt to achieve theoretically optimal performance. Our performance evaluation shows that our new protocol performs nearly as well as the best possible global method while utilizing much less runtime overhead and implementation cost.

[1] S. Bhattacharjee, M.H. Ammar, E.W. Zegura, V. Shah, and Z. Fei, “Application-Layer Anycasting,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM’97, Apr. 1997.
[2] T. Billhartz, J.B. Cain, E. Farrey-Goudreau, D. Fieg, and S.G. Batsell, “Performance and Resource Cost Comparisons for the CBT and PIM Multicast Routing Protocols,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 304-315, April 1997.
[3] E. Basturk, R. Engel, R. Haas, V. Peris, and D. Saha, “Using Network Layer Anycast for Load Distribution in the Internet,” IBM Research Report RC 20938, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 1997.
[4] T. Ballardie, P. Francis, and J. Crowcroft, “Core Based Trees (CBT): An Architecture for Scalable Inter Domain Multicast Routing,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 85-95, 1993.
[5] B. Chen, S. Kamat, and Wei Zhao, “Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Communication in FDDI-Based Networks,” IEEE Computers, Apr. 1997.
[6] A. Banerjea, C.J. Parris, and D. Ferrari, “Recovering Guaranteed Performance Service Connections from Single and Multiple Faults,” Proc. IEEE Globecom, pp.162-168, Nov. 1994.
[7] S. Bahk and M. El Zarki, “A Dynamic Multi-Path Routing Algorithm for ATM Networks,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 1, no. 3, 1992.
[8] A. Ballardie, “Core Based Trees (CBT&CBT version 2) Multicast Routing Architecture,” Technical Reports RFC2201 and RFC2189, Sept. 1997.
[9] A. Banerjea, “A Taxonomy of Dispersity Routing Schemes for Fault Tolerant Realtime Channels,” Proc. European Conf. Multimedia Applications, Services and Techniques (ECMAST‘96), Louvainla-Neuve, Belgium, May 1996.
[10] A. Banerjea, “Simulation Study of the Capacity Effects of Dispersity Routing for Fault Tolerant Realtime Channels,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 194–205, 1996.
[11] D.G. Cantor and M. Gerla, “Optimal Routing in a Packet-Switched Computer Network,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 23, Oct. 1974.
[12] I. Cidon, R. Rom, “Multi-Path Routing Combined with Resource Reservation,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '97, Apr. 1997.
[13] C. Huitema, Routing in the Internet. Prentice Hall, 1995.
[14] K.L. Calvert, E.W. Zegura, and M.J. Donahoo, “Core Selection Methods for Multicast Routing,” Proc ICCCN‘95, pp. 638-642, Sept. 1995.
[15] Y.K. Dalal and R.M. Metcalfe, “Reverse Path Forwarding of Broadcast Packets,” Comm. ACM, vol. 21, no. 12,pp. 1,040–1,048, 1978.
[16] S. Deering and R. Hinden, “Internet Protocol, Version 6, Specification,” Technical Report RFC 1883, Ipsilon Networks, Dec. 1995.
[17] S. Deering and R. Hinden., “Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification,” Internet-Draft,draft-ietf-ipngwg-ipv6-spec-v2-02.txt, Aug. 1998.
[18] S. Deering, “Multicast Routing in Internetworks and Extended LANs,” Proc. SIGCOMM, Aug. 1988.
[19] S. Deering, “ICMP Router Discovery Messages,” Technical Report RFC 1257, Sept. 1991.
[20] S.E. Deering, D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, V. Jacobson, C.-G. Liu, and L. Wei, “The PIM Architecture for Wide-Area Multicast Routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 153-162, Apr. 1996.
[21] M.J. Donahoo and E.W. Zegura, “Core Migration for Dynamic Multicast Routing,” Technical Report GIT-CC-95/28,, College of Computing, Georgia Institue of Tech nology, 1995.
[22] E.W. Dijkstra, “A Note on Two Problems in Connexion with Graphs,” Numerishe Mathematik, vol. 1, pp. 269-271, 1959.
[23] A. Ephremides, “The Routing Problem in Computer Networks,” Communications and Networks, I. Blake and H. Poor, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986.
[24] L. Fratta, M. Cerla, and L. Kleinrock, “The Flow Deviation Method: An Approach to Store-and-Forward Communication Network Design,” Networks, vol. 3, 1973.
[25] H. Frank and W. Chou, “Routing in Computer Networks,” Networks, vol. 1, 1971.
[26] A.J. Frank, L.D. Wittie, and A.J. Bernstein, “Multicast Communication on Network Computers,” IEEE Software, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 49-61, 1985,
[27] M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness.New York: W.H. Freeman, 1979.
[28] E. Gustafsson, G. Karlsson, “A Literature Survey on Traffic Dispersion,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 2, Mar./Apr. 1997.
[29] R.G. Gallager, “A Minimum Delay Routing Algorithms Using Distributed Computation,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 1977.
[30] R. Hinden and S. Deering, “IP Version 6: Addressing Architecture,” Technical Report RFC 2373, July 1998.
[31] C.L. Hedricks, “An Introduction to IGRP,” Technical Report, Center for Computer and Information Services, Laboratory for Computer Science Research, Rutgers Univ., Aug. 1991.
[32] C. Huitema, Routing in the Internet. Prentice Hall, 1995.
[33] A. Jean-Marie and L. Gun, “Parallel Queues with Resequencing,” J. ACM, vol. 40, no. 5, Nov. 1993.
[34] A. Jean-Marie and Z. Liu, “A Stochastic Comparison for Queuing Models via Random Sums and Intervals,” J. Advanced Applied Probabilities, no. 24, 1992.
[35] W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, “Integrated Routing Algorithms for Anycast Messages,” Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, vol. 8, no. 11,pp. 8-12, Nov. 1998.
[36] K.B. Kumar and J.M. Jaffe, “Routing to Multiple Destinations in Computer Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 31, no.3, March 1983.
[37] L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A Fast Algorithm for Steiner Trees,” Acta Informatica, vol. 5, pp. 141-145, 1981.
[38] A. Khanna and J. Zinky, “The Revised ARPANET Routing Metric,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM‘89, Sept. 1989.
[39] N. Malcolm and W. Zhao, “Hard Real-Time Communication in Multiple-Access Networks,” J. Real-Time Systems, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 35-77, Jan. 1994.
[40] N.F. Maxemchuk, “Dispersity Routing in High-Speed Networks,” Computer Networks and ISDN System, vol. 25, no. 6, 1993.
[41] J. Moy, “OSPF Version 2,” Technical Report RFC1583, Mar. 1994.
[42] J. Moy, “Multicast Extensions to OSPF,” Technical Report RFC 1584, Mar. 1994.
[43] J. Moy, OSPF: Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocol. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1998.
[44] N.F. Maxemchuk, Dispersity Routing, Proc. ICC‘75, San Francisco, pp. 41.10-41.13, June 1975.
[45] C. Partridge, T. Mendez, and W. Milliken, “Host Anycasting Service,” Technical Report RFC1546, Nov. 1993.
[46] C. Partridge, P.P. Carvey, E. Burgess, I. Castineyra, T. Clarke, L. Graham, M. Hathaway, P. Herman, A. King, S. Kohalmi, T. Ma, and J. Mcallen, “A 50-Gb/s IP Router,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 237-248, June 1998.
[47] M. Parsa and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “Scalable Internet Multicast Routing,” Proc. ICCCN‘95, pp. 162-166, Sept. 1995.
[48] M. Parsa and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “A Protocol for Scalable Loop-Free Multicast Routing. Selected Areas in Communications,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 3, Apr. 1997.
[49] D. Sidhu, S. Abdullah, and R. Nair, “Congestion Control in High Speed Networks via Alternate Path Routing,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 1, no. 2, 1992.
[50] M. Schwartz and C.K. Cheung, “The Gradient Projection Algorithm for Multiple Routing in Message-Switched Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 24, no. 4, Apr. 1976.
[51] M. Schwartz and T. Stern, “Routing Techniques Used in Computer Communications Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 28, no. 4, April 1980.
[52] D.G. Thaler and C.V. Ravishankar, “Distributed Center-Location Algorithms,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 291-303, Apr. 1997.
[53] D.G. Thaler and C.V. Ravishankar, “Distributed Center-Location Algorithms,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 291-303, Apr. 1997.
[54] Z. Wang and J. Crowcroft, “Shortest Path First with Emergency Exits,” Proc. SIGCOMM‘90, pp. 166-173, Sept. 1990.
[55] D.W. Wall, “Selective Broadcast in Packet-Switched Networks,” Proc. Six Berkeley Workshops Distributed Data Management and Computer Networks, pp. 239-158, Feb. 1982.
[56] L. Wei and D. Estrin, “Multicast Routing in Dense and Sparse Modes: Simulation Study of Tradeoffs and Dynamics,” Proc. ICCCN‘95, pp. 150-157, Sept. 1995.
[57] D. Waitzman, C. Partridge, and S. Deering, “Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol,” Technical Report RFC 1075, 1988.
[58] D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, Routing Algorithms for Anycast Messages, Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP‘98), pp. 122-130, 1998.

Index Terms:
Multicast routing, fault tolerance, core-based trees.
Weijia Jia, Wei Zhao, Dong Xuan, Gaochao Xu, "An Efficient Fault-Tolerant Multicast Routing Protocol with Core-Based Tree Techniques," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 984-1000, Oct. 1999, doi:10.1109/71.808133
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.