This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Real-Time Dependable Channels: Customizing QoS Attributes for Distributed Systems
June 1999 (vol. 10 no. 6)
pp. 600-612

Abstract—Communication services that provide enhanced Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees related to dependability and real time are important for many applications in distributed systems. This paper presents real-time dependable (RTD) channels, a communication-oriented abstraction that can be configured to meet the QoS requirements of a variety of distributed applications. This customization ability is based on using CactusRT, a system that supports the construction of middleware services out of software modules called micro-protocols. Each micro-protocol implements a different semantic property or property variant and interacts with other micro-protocols using an event-driven model supported by the CactusRT runtime system. In addition to RTD channels, CactusRT and its implementation are described. This prototype executes on a cluster of Pentium PCs running the OpenGroup/RI MK 7.3 Mach real-time operating system and CORDS, a system for building network protocols based on the x-kernel.

[1] F. Adelstein and M. Singhal, "Real-Time Causal Message Ordering in Multimedia Systems," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 36-43,Vancouver, Canada, 1995.
[2] T. Abdelzaher, A. Shaikh, F. Jahanian, and K. Shin, “RTCAST: Lightweight Multicast for Real-Time Process Groups,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp., June 1996.
[3] A. Banerjea, D. Ferrari, B. Mah, M. Moran, D. Verma, and H. Zhang, “The Tenet Real-Time Protocol Suite: Design, Implementation, and Experiences,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-10, Feb. 1996.
[4] N. Bhatti, M. Hiltunen, R. Schlichting, and W. Chiu, “Coyote: A System for Constructing Fine-Grain Configurable Communication Services,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 321-366, Nov. 1998.
[5] D. Boggs, J. Mogul, and C. Kent, “Measured Capacity of an Ethernet: Myths and Reality,” Proc. SIGCOMM '88 Symp. Comm. Architectures and Protocols, pp. 222–234, Aug. 1988.
[6] K. Birman, A. Schiper, and P. Stephenson, “Lightweight Causal and Atomic Group Multicast,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 272-314, Aug. 1991.
[7] F. Cristian, H. Aghili, R. Strong, and D. Dolev, Atomic Broadcast: From Simple Message Diffusion to Byzantine Agreement Information and Control, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 158-179, 1995.
[8] R.L. Cruz, A Calculus for Network Delay, Part I: Network Elements in Isolation IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 37, pp. 114-131, Jan. 1991.
[9] D. Guedes, D. Bakken, N. Bhatti, M. Hiltunen, and R. Schlichting, “A Customized Communication Subsystem for FT-Linda,” Proc. 13th Brazilian Symp. Computer Networks, pp. 319–338, May 1995.
[10] O. Gonzalez, C. Shen, I. Mizunuma, and M. Takegaki, “Implementation and Performance of MidART,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Middleware for Distributed Real-Time Systems and Services, San Francisco, Dec. 1997.
[11] A. Herbert., “An ANSA Overview,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 1994.
[12] M. Hiltunen, “Configuration Management for Highly-Customizable Software,” IEE Proc.: Software, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 180-188, Oct. 1998.
[13] M. Hiltunen, V. Immanuel, and R. Schlichting, “Supporting Customized Failure Models for Distributed Software,” Technical Report 99-04, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, Feb. 1999.
[14] N.C. Hutchinson and L.L. Peterson, “The x-Kernel: An Architecture for Implementing Network Protocols,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 64-76, Jan. 1991.
[15] M. Hiltunen and R. Schlichting, “Constructing a Configurable Group RPC Service,” Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 288-295, May 1995.
[16] M. Hiltunen and R. Schlichting, “A Configurable Membership Service,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 573-586, May 1998.
[17] H. Kopetz, A. Damm, C. Koza, M. Mulazzani, W. Schwabi, C. Senft, and R. Zainlinger, "Distributed Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems: The MARS Approach," IEEE Micro, pp. 25-58, Feb. 1989.
[18] H. Kopetz and G. Grünsteidl, "TTP: A Time-Triggered Protocol for Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems," Computer, vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1994, pp. 14-23.
[19] H. Kopetz, H. Kantz, G. Grunsteidl, P. Puschner, and J. Reisinger, Tolerating Transient Faults in MARS Digest of Papers, 20th Ann. Int'l Symp. Fault-Tolerant Computing (FTCS-20), pp. 466-473, June 1990.
[20] E. Knightly, “H-BIND: A New Approach to Providing Statistical Performance Guarantees to VBR Traffic,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '96, pp. 1,091–1,099, San Francisco, Mar. 1996.
[21] D. Kandlur and K. Shin., “Design of a Communication Subsystem for HARTS,” Technical Report CSE-TR-109-91, Univ. of Michigan, Oct. 1991.
[22] D.D. Kandlur, K.G. Shin, and D. Ferrari, “Real-Time Communication in Multi-Hop Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1,044-1,056, Oct. 1994.
[23] J. Liebeherr, D. Wrege, and D. Ferrari, “Exact Admission Control for Networks with Bounded Delay Services,” Technical Report TR-94-033, Int'l Computer Science Inst., Univ. of California at Berkeley, Aug. 1994.
[24] A. Mauthe, D. Hutchison, G. Coulson, and S. Namuye, “Multimedia Group Communications: Towards New Services,” Distributed Systems Eng., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 197–210, Sept. 1996.
[25] L.E. Moser, P.M. Melliar-Smith, D.A. Agarwal, R.K. Budhia, and C.A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, “Totem: A Fault-Tolerant Multicast Group Communication System,” Comm. ACM, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 54–63, 1996.
[26] W. Montgomery, “Techniques for Packet-Voice Synchronization,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1,022–1,028, Dec. 1983.
[27] Object Management Group, The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specification (Revision 2.2). Feb. 1998.
[28] L. Peterson, N. Bucholz, and R. Schlichting, “Preserving and Using Context Information in Interprocess Communication,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, Aug. 1989, pp. 217‐246.
[29] Delta-4: A Generic Architecture for Dependable Computing, D. Powell, ed. Springer-Verlag 1991.
[30] R. van Renesse, K.P. Birman, and S. Maffeis, “Horus: A Flexible Group Communication System,” Comm. ACM, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 76–83, 1996.
[31] Real-Time Innovations, Inc., NDDS: The Network Data Delivery Service. http:/www.rti.com/, 1998.
[32] F. Reynolds, “The OSF Real-Time Micro-Kernel,” technical report, OSF Research Inst., 1995.
[33] D. Schmidt, D. Box, and T. Suda, “ADAPTIVE: A Dynamically Assembled Protocol Transformation, Integration, and Evaluation Environment,” Concurrency: Practice and Experience, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 269–286, June 1993.
[34] D. Schmidt, D. Levine, and C. Cleeland, “Architectures and Patterns for High-Performance, Real-Time CORBA Object Request Brokers,” Advances in Computers, M. Zelkowitz, ed., to appear. Academic Press, 1999.
[35] D. Schmidt, S. Mungee, S. Flores-Gaitan, and A. Gokhale, “Alleviating Priority Inversion and Non-Determinism in Real-time CORBA ORB Core Architectures,” Proc. Fourth IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp. (RTAS), June 1998.
[36] L. Sha, R. Rajkuma, and J.P. Lehoczky, "Priority Inheritance Protocols: An Approach to Real-Time Synchronization," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1,175-1,185, Sept. 1990.
[37] D. Stewart, R. Volpe, and P. Khosla, “Design of Dynamically Reconfigurable Real-Time Software Using Port-Based Objects,” Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-93-11, Carnegie Mellon Univ., July 1993.
[38] F. Travostino, E. Menze, and F. Reynolds, “Paths: Programming with System Resources in Support of Real-Time Distributed Applications,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Object-Oriented Real-Time Dependable Systems, Feb. 1996.
[39] H. Tokuda, T. Nakajima, and P. Rao, “Real-Time Mach: Toward a Predictable Real-Time System,” Proc. USENIX Mach Workshop, pp. 73–82, Oct. 1990.
[40] D. Wrege, E. Knightly, H. Zhang, and J. Liebeherr, “Deterministic Delay Bounds for VBR Video in Packet-Switching Networks: Fundamental Limits and Practical Tradeoffs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 352–362, June 1996.

Index Terms:
Real-time, dependability, group multicast, configurable systems, customization.
Citation:
Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D. Schlichting, Xiaonan Han, Melvin M. Cardozo, Rajsekhar Das, "Real-Time Dependable Channels: Customizing QoS Attributes for Distributed Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 600-612, June 1999, doi:10.1109/71.774909
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.