This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Competitive Analysis of Caching in Distributed Databases
April 1998 (vol. 9 no. 4)
pp. 391-409

Abstract—This paper makes two contributions. First, we introduce a model for evaluating the performance of data allocation and replication algorithms in distributed databases. The model is comprehensive in the sense that it accounts for I/O cost, for communication cost, and, because of reliability considerations, for limits on the minimum number of copies of the object. The model captures existing replica-management algorithms, such as read-one-write-all, quorum-consensus, etc. These algorithms are static in the sense that, in the absence of failures,, the copies of each object are allocated to a fixed set of processors.

In modern distributed databases, particularly in mobile computing environments, processors will dynamically store objects in their local database and will relinquish them. Therefore, as a second contribution of this paper, we introduce an algorithm for automatic dynamic allocation of replicas to processors. Then, using the new model, we compare the performance of the traditional read-one-write-all static allocation algorithm to the performance of the dynamic allocation algorithm. As a result, we obtain the relationship between the communication cost and I/O cost for which static allocation is superior to dynamic allocation, and the relationships for which dynamic allocation is superior.

[1] Y. Bartal, A. Fiat, and Y. Rabani, "Competitive Algorithms for Distributed Data Management," Proc. 24th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Compting,Victoria, B.C., Canada, May 1992.
[2] P.A. Bernstein and N. Goodman, "An Algorithm for Concurrency Control and Recovery in Replicated Distributed Databases," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 596-615, Dec. 1984.
[3] P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[4] D.L. Black and D.D. Sleator, "Competitive Algorithms for Replication and Migration Problems," Technical Report CMU-CS-89-201, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Nov. 1989.
[5] M.E. Crovella and R.L. Carter, "Dynamic Server Selection in the Internet," Proc. Third Workshop Architecture and Implementation of High Performance Comm. Subsystems, 1995.
[6] A. Chankhunthod, P.B. Danzig, C. Neerdaels, M.F. Schwartz, and K.J. Worrell, "A Hierarchical Internet Object Cache," Proc. USENIX, 1996.
[7] M.J. Carey and M. Livny, "Distributed Concurrency Control Performance: A Study of Algorithms, Distribution and Replication," Proc. 14th Very Large Data Bases Conf.,Los Angeles, 1988.
[8] L.W. Dowdy and D.V. Foster, "Comparative Models of the File Assignment Problem," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 14, no. 2, 1982.
[9] D.L. Eager and K.C. Sevick, "Achieving Robustness in Distributed Database Systems," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 354-381, Sept. 1983.
[10] A. Fiat, R. Karp, M. Luby, L.A. McGeoch, D. Sleator, and N.E. Yong, "Competitive Paging Algorithms," J. Algorithms, vol. 12, pp. 685-699, 1991
[11] M.J. Franklin, Client Data Caching. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
[12] C. Gray and D. Cheriton, "Leases: An Efficient Fault-Tolerant Mechanism for Distributed File Cache Consistency," Proc. 12th Int'l Symp. Operating System Principles, 1989.
[13] J. Gwertzman and M. Seltzer, "World-Wide Web Cache Consistency," Proc. 1996 Usenix Conf., Jan. 1996.
[14] J. Gwertzman and M. Seltzer, "The Case for Geographical Push Caching," Proc. Workshop Hot Operating Systems, 1995.
[15] N. Goodman, D. Skeen, A. Chan, U. Dayal, S. Fox, and D. Ries, "A Recovery Algorithm for a Distributed Database System," Proc. Second ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD Symp. Database Systems, pp. 8-15,Atlanta, Ga., Mar. 1983.
[16] J.D. Guyton and M.F. Schwartz, "Locating Nearby Copies of Replicated Internet Servers," Technical Report CU-CS-762-95, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Feb. 1995.
[17] D.K. Gifford, “Weighted Voting for Replicated Data,” Proc. Seventh ACM SIGOPS Symp. Operating Systems Principles, pp. 150-159, Dec. 1979.
[18] Y. Huang, P. Sistla, and O. Wolfson, "Data Replication for Mobile Computers," Proc. ACM-SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data,Minneapolis, Minn., May 1994.
[19] Y. Huang and O. Wolfson, "A Competitive Dynamic Data Replication Algorithm," IEEE Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Data Eng. '93, pp. 310-317,Vienna, 1993.
[20] J. Kistler and M. Satyanarayanan, "Disconnected Operation in the Coda File System," Proc. 13th Int'l Symp. Operating System Principles,Pacific Grove, Calif., Oct. 1991.
[21] C. Liu and P. Cao, "Maintaining Strong Cache Consistency in the World-Wide Web," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, 1997.
[22] K. Li and P. Hudak, "Memory Coherence in Shared Virtual Memory Systems," ACM Trans. Computer Surveys, vol. 7, no. 4, Nov. 1989.
[23] E. Levy and A. Silbershatz, "Distributed File Systems: Concepts and Examples," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 22, no. 4, Dec. 1990.
[24] M. Manasse, L.A. McGeoch, and D. Sleator, "Competitive Algorithms for Online Problems," Proc. 20th ACM Symp. Theory of Compting, pp. 322-333, 1988.
[25] B. Nitzberg and V. Lo, "Distributed Shared Memory: A Survey of Issues and Algorithms," Computer, vol. 24, no. 8, Aug. 1991.
[26] K. Obraczka, P. Danzig, D. DeLucia, and E-Y. Tsai, "A Tool Massively Replicating Internet Archives: Design, Implementation, and Experience," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, 1996.
[27] T.M. Ozsu and P. Valduriez, Principles of Distributed Database Systems. Prentice Hall, 1991.
[28] G. Popek, R. Guy, T. Page, and J. Heidemann, "Replication in Ficus Distributed File Systems," IEEE Proc. Workshop Management of Replicated Data,Houston, Tex., Nov. 1990.
[29] C. Papadimitriou, "The Serializability of Concurrent Updates," J. ACM, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 631-653, 1979.
[30] R.H. Thomas, “A Majority Consensus Approach to Concurrency Control,” ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 180-209, June 1979.
[31] O. Wolfson and A. Milo, "The Multicast Policy and Its Relationship to Replicated Data Placement," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, 1991.
[32] O. Wolfson and S. Jajodia, "Distributed Algorithms for Dynamic Replication of Data," Proc. ACM-PODS, 1992.
[33] O. Wolfson and S. Jajodia, "An Algorithm for Dynamic Data Distribution," Proc. Second Workshop Management of Replicated Data (WMRD-II), pp. 62-65, 1992.
[34] M. Zahariousdakis and M.J. Carey, "Hierarchical, Adaptive Cache Consistency in a Page Server OODBMS," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, 1997.

Index Terms:
Object allocation, caching, distributed database, mobile computing, wireless communication, competitiveness.
Ouri Wolfson, Yixiu Huang, "Competitive Analysis of Caching in Distributed Databases," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 391-409, April 1998, doi:10.1109/71.667899
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.