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Scheduling In and Out Forests in the Presence of Communication Delays
October 1996 (vol. 7 no. 10)
pp. 1065-1074

Abstract—We consider the problem of scheduling tasks on multiprocessor architectures in the presence of communication delays. Given a set of dependent tasks, the scheduling problem is to allocate the tasks to processors such that the pre-specified precedence constraints among the tasks are obeyed and certain cost-measures (such as the computation time) are minimized. Several cases of the scheduling problem have been proven to be NP-complete [16], [10]. Nevertheless, there are polynomial time algorithms for interesting special cases of the general scheduling problem [12], [14], [10]. Most of these results, however, do not take into consideration the delays due to message passing among processors. In this paper we study the increase in time complexity of scheduling problems due to the introduction of communication delays. In particular, we address the open problem of scheduling Out-forests (In-forests) in a multiprocessor system of m identical processors when communication delays are considered. The corresponding problem of scheduling Out-forests (In-forests) without communication delays admits an elegant polynomial time solution as presented first by Hu in 1961 [12]; however, the problem in the presence of communication delays has remained unsolved. We present here first known polynomial time algorithms for the computation of the optimal schedule when the number of available processors is given and bounded and both computation and communication delays are assumed to take one unit of time. Furthermore, we present a linear-time algorithm for computing a near-optimal schedule for unit-delay out-forests. The schedule's length exceeds the optimum by no more than (m– 2) time units, where m is the number of processors. Hence for two processors the computed schedule is strictly optimum.

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Index Terms:
Communication delays, out-forest precedence graphs, multiprocessor architectures, out-forest precedence graphs, optimal deterministic schedules, polynomial-time algorithms.
Theodora A. Varvarigou, Vwani P. Roychowdhury, Thomas Kailath, Eugene Lawler, "Scheduling In and Out Forests in the Presence of Communication Delays," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1065-1074, Oct. 1996, doi:10.1109/71.539738
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