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Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in Meshes without Virtual Channels
June 1996 (vol. 7 no. 6)
pp. 620-636

Abstract—Previous methods of making wormhole-routed meshes fault tolerant have been based on adding virtual channels to the networks. This paper proposes an alternative method, one based on the turn model for designing wormhole routing algorithms. The turn model produces routing algorithms that are deadlock free, very adaptive, minimal or nonminimal, and livelock free for direct networks—whether or not they contain virtual channels. This paper illustrates how to modify the routing algorithms produced by the turn model to handle dynamic faults. The paper first describes how to modify the negative-first routing algorithm, which the turn model produces for n-dimensional meshes without virtual channels, to make it one-fault tolerant. Simulations of the one-fault-tolerant routing algorithm and other minimal and nonminimal routing algorithms in a two-dimensional mesh indicate that misrouting increases communication latencies significantly at high throughputs. The conclusion is that misrouting should be used only for increasing the degree of fault tolerance, never for just increasing adaptiveness. Finally, the paper describes how to modify the negative-first routing algorithm to make it (n− 1)-fault tolerant for n-dimensional meshes without virtual channels.

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Index Terms:
Wormhole routing, fault-tolerant routing, adaptive routing, dynamic faults, mesh networks.
Citation:
Christopher J. Glass, Lionel M. Ni, "Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in Meshes without Virtual Channels," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 620-636, June 1996, doi:10.1109/TPDS.1996.10001
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