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K. Arvind, "Probabilistic Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 474487, May, 1994.  
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@article{ 10.1109/71.282558, author = {K. Arvind}, title = {Probabilistic Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems}, volume = {5}, number = {5}, issn = {10459219}, year = {1994}, pages = {474487}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/71.282558}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems TI  Probabilistic Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems IS  5 SN  10459219 SP474 EP487 EPD  474487 A1  K. Arvind, PY  1994 KW  Index Termssynchronisation; distributed processing; probability; clock synchronization; distributedsystems; clock skew; synchronization messages; probability of invalidity; deterministicalgorithm; masterslave scheme; probabilistic algorithm; time transmission protocol VL  5 JA  IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems ER   
Presents and analyzes a new probabilistic clock synchronization algorithm that can guarantee a much smaller bound on the clock skew than most existing algorithms. The algorithm is probabilistic in the sense that the bound on the clock skew that it guarantees has a probability of invalidity associated with it. However, the probability of invalidity may be made extremely small by transmitting a sufficient number of synchronization messages. It is shown that an upper bound on the probability of invalidity decreases exponentially with the number of synchronization messages transmitted. A closedform expression that relates the probability of invalidity to the clock skew and the number of synchronization messages is also derived.
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