This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Prediction of Performance and Processor Requirements in Real-Time Data Flow Architectures
November 1993 (vol. 4 no. 11)
pp. 1205-1216

Presents a new data flow graph model for describing the real-time execution of iterativecontrol and signal processing algorithms on multiprocessor data flow architectures.Identified by the acronym ATAMM, for Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model, themodel is important because it specifies criteria for a multiprocessor operating system toachieve predictable and reliable performance. Algorithm performance is characterized byexecution time and iteration period. For a given data flow graph representation, the modelfacilitates calculation of greatest lower bounds for these performance measures. Whensufficient processors are available, the system executes algorithms with minimumexecution time and minimum iteration period, and the number of processors required iscalculated. When only limited processors are available or when processors fail,performance is made to degrade gracefully and predictably. The user off-line is able tospecify tradeoffs between increasing execution time or increasing iteration period. The approach to achieving predictable performance is to control the injection rate of inputdata and to modify the data flow graph precedence relations so that a processor isalways available to execute an enabled graph node. An implementation of the ATAMMmodel in a four-processor architecture based on Westinghouse's VHSIC 1750A Instruction Set Processor is described.

[1] M. Singhal and T. L. Casavant, "Distributed computing systems,"Computer, vol. 24, pp. 12-15, Aug. 1991.
[2] T. Agerwala and Arvind, "Data flow systems,"Computer, vol. 15, pp. 10-13, Feb. 1982.
[3] K.M. Kavi, B.P. Buckles, and U.N. Bhat, "A Formal Definition of Data Flow Graph Models,"IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol. C-35, No. 11, Nov. 1986, pp. 940-948.
[4] M. E. Kopache and E. P. Glinert, "C2: A mixed textual/graphical environment for C," inProc. IEEE Workshop Visual Languages. 1988, pp. 231-238.
[5] E. A. Lee and D. G. Messerschmitt, "Static scheduling of synchronous data flow programs for digital signal processing,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-36, no. 1, pp. 24-35, Jan. 1987.
[6] W. H. Kohler, "A preliminary evaluation of the critical path method for scheduling tasks on multiprocessor systems,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-25, pp. 1235-1238, Dec. 1975.
[7] S. C. Cheng, J. A. Stankovic, and K. Ramamritham, "Scheduling algorithms for hard real-timd systems-A brief survey," inHard Real-Time Systems Tutorial, J. A. Stankovic, Ed. New York: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1988, pp. 150-173.
[8] M. Gransky, I. Koren, and G. M. Silberman, "The effect of operation scheduling on the performance of a data flow computer,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-36, pp. 1019-1029, Sept. 1987.
[9] S. Ha and E. A. Lee, "Compile-time scheduling and assignment of data-flow program graphs with data-dependent iteration,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 40, pp. 1225-1238, Nov. 1991.
[10] K. K. Parhi and D. G. Messerschmitt, "Static rate-optimal scheduling of iterative data-flow programs via optimum unfolding,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 40, pp. 178-195, Feb. 1991.
[11] W. Zhao, K. Ramamritham, and J. A. Stankovic, "Preemptive scheduling under time and resource constraints,"IEEE Trans. Comput., Aug. 1987.
[12] J. Y. Chung, J. W. S. Liu, and K. J. Lin, "Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 39, pp. 1156-1174, Sept. 1990.
[13] R. R. Mielke, J. W. Stoughton, and S. Som, "Modeling and performance bounds for concurrent processing," inProc. 8th Int. Conf. Distributed Computing Syst., San Jose, CA, June 1988, pp. 538-544.
[14] S. Som, "Performance modeling and enhancement for the ATAMM data flow architecture," Ph.D. dissertation, Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA, May 1989.
[15] S. Som, R. R. Mielke, and J. W. Stoughton, "Strategies for predictability in real-time data-flow architectures," inProc. 11th IEEE Real-Time Syst. Symp., Orlando, FL, Dec. 1990, pp. 226-235.
[16] M. Murata, "Modeling and analysis of concurrent systems," inHandbook of Software Engineering, C. Vick and C. Ramamoorthy, Ed. New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1984, pp. 39-63.
[17] R. Mielke, J. Stoughton, S. Som, R. Obando, M. Malekpor, and B. Mandala, "ATAMM multicomputer operating system functional specification," NASA Contractor Rep. 4339, Grant NCC1-136, Aug. 1990.
[18] S. Som, R. Obando, R. R. Mielke, and J. W. Stoughton, "ATAMM: A computational model for real-time data flow architectures," inProc. ISMM Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 11, New York, NY, Oct. 1990, pp. 241-245.

Index Terms:
Index Termsperformance; data flow graph; data flow architectures; processor requirements; ATAMM;Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model; multiprocessor operating system; reliableperformance; four-processor architecture; VHSIC 1750A Instruction Set Processor;iterative control; signal processing algorithms; periodic; nonpreemptive; dynamicmultiprocessor scheduling; real-time systems; processor requirement prediction; faulttolerant computing; multiprocessing systems; operating systems (computers); real-timesystems; scheduling
Citation:
S. Som, R.R. Mielke, J.W. Stoughton, "Prediction of Performance and Processor Requirements in Real-Time Data Flow Architectures," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1205-1216, Nov. 1993, doi:10.1109/71.250100
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.