This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Performance Analysis of Buffer Coherency Policies in a Multisystem Data Sharing Environment
March 1993 (vol. 4 no. 3)
pp. 289-305

Six buffer coherency policies for a multisystem transaction processing environment are compared. These policies differ in their basic approaches on how and when the invalidated pages are identified or if the updated pages are propagated to the buffers of the remote nodes. They can be classified as detection, notification (of invalid pages), and (update) propagation oriented approaches. The policies trade off CPU overhead of coherency messages with buffer hit probability in different ways, resulting in a tradeoff of response time and maximum throughput. The main contribution is to develop analytical models to predict buffer hit probabilities under various buffer coherency policies assuming the LRU replacement policy and the independent reference model (IRM). The buffer models are validated using simulation models and show excellent agreement. Integrated analytic models capturing buffer hit probability and CPU overhead are developed to predict the overall response times under these coherency policies. The difference in buffer hit probabilities amongst various policies are found to be very sensitive to the skewness of the data access.

[1] A. Agarwal, R. Simoni, J. Hennessy, and M. Horowitz, "An evaluation of directory schemes for cache coherence," inProc. 15th Int. Symp. Comput. Architecture, June 1988, pp. 280-289.
[2] J. Archibald and J. L. Baer, "Cache-coherence protocols: Evaluation using a multiprocessor simulation model,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 273-298, Nov. 1986.
[3] S. B. Behman, T. A. DeNatale, and R. W. Shomler, "Limited lock facility in a DASD control unit," Tech. Rep. TR 02.859, IBM General Products Division, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1979.
[4] M. Bellew, M. Hsu, and V-O. Tam, "Update propagation in distributed memory hierarchy," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. Data Eng., Los Angeles, CA, Feb. 1990, pp. 521-528.
[5] J. Bennett, J. Carter, and W. Zwaenepoel, "Munin: Distributed Shared Memory Based on Type-Specific Memory Coherence,"Proc. 1990 Conf. Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, ACM Press, New York, N.Y., 1990, pp. 168-176.
[6] A. Bhide, "An analysis of three transaction processing architectures,"14th Int. Conf. Very-Large Databases, 1988, pp. 339-350.
[7] M. J. Carey, M. J. Franklin, M. Livny, and D. J. Shekita, "Data caching trade-offs in client-server DBMS architectures," inACM SIGMOD, Denver, CO, May 1991, pp. 357-366.
[8] R. I. Casas and K. C. Sevcik, "A buffer management model for use in predicting overall database system performance," inFifth Int. Conf. Data Eng., Los Angeles, CA, Feb. 1989, pp. 463-469.
[9] B. Ciciani, D. M. Dias, and P. S. Yu, "Analysis of replication in distributed database systems,"IEEE Trans. Knowledge Data Eng., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 247-261, June 1990.
[10] A. Dan, "Performance analysis of data sharing environments," Ph.D. dissertation, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Aug. 1992.
[11] A. Dan, D. M. Dias, and P.S. Yu, "Database buffer model for the data sharing environment," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. on Data Eng.(Los Angeles, CA), Feb. 1990, pp. 538-544.
[12] A. Dan and D. Towsley, "An approximate analysis of the LRU and FIFO buffer replacement schemes," inACM SIGMETRICS, Denver, CO, May 1990, pp. 143-152.
[13] A. Danet al., "The effect of skewed data access on buffer hits and data contention in a data sharing environment," inProc. 16th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, pp. 419-431, Aug. 1990.
[14] A. Dan, P. S. Yu, and J.-Y. Chung, "Database access characterization for buffer hit prediction," inProc. 9th Int. Conf. Data Eng., Vienna, Austria, Apr., 1993, pp. 134-143.
[15] A. Dan and P. S. Yu, "Performance analysis of coherency control policies through lock retention," inProc. ACM SIGMOD, San Diego, June 1992, pp. 114-123.
[16] S. E. Deering and D. R. Cheriton, "Multicast routing in datagram internetworks and extended LAN's,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 85-110, May 1990.
[17] D. M. Dias, B. R. Iyer, and P. S. Yu, "Tradeoffs between coupling small and large processors for transaction processing,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-37, no. 3, pp. 310-320, Mar, 1988.
[18] D. M. Dias, B. R. Iyer, J. T. Robinson, and P. S. Yu, "Integrated concurrency-coherency controls for multisystem data sharing,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 437-448, Apr. 1989.
[19] M. Dubois and F. Y. Briggs, "Effects of cache coherency in multiprocessor,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-31, no. 11, pp. 1083-1099, Nov. 1982.
[20] S. J. Eggers and R. H. Katz, "Evaluation of the performance of four snooping cache coherency protocols," inProc. 16th Annu Int. Symp. Comput. Architecture, Jerusalem, Israel, May 1989, pp. 2-15.
[21] A. G. Greenberg, I. Mitrani, and L. Rudolph, "Analysis of snooping caches," (preprint 1989). InProc. Perform. '87, pp. 245-257. ACM/SIGMETRICS Conference on Measurement and Modelling of Computer Systems, 12th IFIP Working Group 7.3 Int. Symp., Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 1987.
[22] J. H. Howardet al., "Scale and performance in a distributed file system,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 6, no. 1, Feb. 1988.
[23] Y. P. Hsu, "Performance evaluation of data sharing transaction processing systems," Master's thesis, Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, Feb. 1988.
[24] J.P. Kearns and S. DeFazio, "Diversity in Database Reference Behavior,"Performance Evaluation Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, May 1989, pp. 11-19.
[25] N. P. Kronenberg, H. M. Levy, and W. D. Strecker, "VAXcluster: A closely-coupled distributed system,"ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 4., no. 2, pp. 130-146, May 1986.
[26] K. Li and P. Hudak, "Memory Coherence in Shared Virtual Memory Systems,"ACM Trans. Computer Systems, Vol. 7, No. 4, Nov. 1989, pp. 321-359.
[27] S.S. Lavenberg,Computer Performance Modeling Handbook, Academic Press, New York, 1983.
[28] C. Mohan and I. Narang, "Recovery and coherency control protocols for fast intersystem page transfer and fine granularity locking in a shared disks transaction environment," inProc. 17th Int. Conf. Very. Large Data Bases, Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 1991, pp. 193-207.
[29] U. Ramachandran, M. Ahamad, and M. Y. A. Khalidi, "Coherence of distributed shared memory: Unifying synchronization and data transfer," inProc. 18th Int. Conf. Parallel Processing, St. Charles, IL, Aug. 1989, pp. II-160-II-169.
[30] R. Rahm, "Primary copy synchronization for dB-sharing,"Inform. Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 275-286, 1986.
[31] E. Rahm, "Empirical performance evaluation of concurrency and coherency control protocols for data sharing," IBM Res. Rep., RC 14325, 1988.
[32] J. T. Robinson, "A fast general purpose hardware synchronization mechanism,"SIGMOD Rec., 1985, pp. 122-130.
[33] J. P. Strickland, P. P. Uhrowczik, and V. L. Watts, "IMS/VS: An evolving system,"IBM Syst. J., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 490-510, 1982.
[34] Y.C. Tay, N. Goodman, and R. Suri, "Locking performance in centralized databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 415-462, Dec. 1985.
[35] J. Gray, Ed.,The Benchmark Handbook for Database and Transaction Processing Systems. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
[36] M. K. Vernon, E.D. Lazowska, and J. Zahorjan, "An accurate and efficient performance analysis technique for multiprocessor snooping cache-consistency protocols," inProc. 15th Annu. Int. Symp. Comput. Architecture, Honolulu, HI, May 1988, pp. 308-315.
[37] K. Wilkinson and M. A. Neimat, "Maintaining consistency of client-cached data," inProc. 16th Very Large Database Conf., Brisbane, Australia, Aug. 1990, pp. 122-133.
[38] Q. Yang, L. N. Bhuyan, and B. Liu, "Analysis and comparison of cache coherence protocols for a packet-switched multiprocessor,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-38, no. 8, pp. 1143-1153, Aug. 1989.
[39] P. S. Yu, D. M. Dias, J. T. Robinson, B. R. Iyer, and D. W. Cornell, "On coupling multi-systems through data sharing,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 573-587, May 1987.
[40] P. S. Yu and D.M. Dias, "Concurrency control using locking with deferred blocking," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. Data Engineering, pp. 30-36, 1990.
[41] K. Barker and M.T. Ozzu, "Reliable Transaction Execution in Multidatabase Systems,"Proc. First Int'l Workshop Interoperability Multidatabase Systems, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., Order No. 2205, 1991, pp. 344-347.
[42] P. S. Yu and D. M. Dias, "Analysis of hybrid concurrency control schemes for a high data contention environment,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 118-129, Feb. 1992.

Index Terms:
Index Termsperformance analysis; integrated analytic models; buffer coherency policies; multisystem data sharing environment; multisystem transaction processing environment; detection; notification; propagation oriented approaches; coherency messages; buffer hit probability; response time; maximum throughput; independent reference model; simulation models; CPU overhead; performance evaluation; shared memory systems; transaction processing
Citation:
A. Dan, P.S. Yu, "Performance Analysis of Buffer Coherency Policies in a Multisystem Data Sharing Environment," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 289-305, March 1993, doi:10.1109/71.210812
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.