The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.11 - Nov. (2013 vol.62)
pp: 2141-2154
Sungjin Lee , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Dongkun Shin , Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon
Jihong Kim , Seoul National University, Seoul
ABSTRACT
NAND flash-based storage device is becoming a viable storage solution for mobile and desktop systems. Because of the erase-before-write nature, flash-based storage devices require garbage collection that causes significant performance degradation, incurring a large number of page migrations and block erasures. To improve I/O performance, therefore, it is important to develop an efficient garbage collection algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel garbage collection technique, called buffer-aware garbage collection (BAGC), for flash-based storage devices. The BAGC improves the efficiency of two main steps of garbage collection, a block merge step and a victim block selection step, by taking account of the contents of a buffer cache, which is typically used to enhance I/O performance. The buffer-aware block merge (BABM) scheme eliminates unnecessary page migrations by evicting dirty data from a buffer cache during a block merge step. The buffer-aware victim block selection (BAVBS) scheme, on the other hand, selects a victim block so that the benefit of the buffer-aware block merge is maximized. Our experimental results show that BAGC improves I/O performance by up to 43 percent over existing buffer-unaware schemes for various benchmarks.
INDEX TERMS
Ash, System-on-a-chip, Registers, Buffer storage, Performance evaluation, Reliability, Educational institutions,garbage collection, NAND flash memory, flash translation layer (FTL), buffer management
CITATION
Sungjin Lee, Dongkun Shin, Jihong Kim, "BAGC: Buffer-Aware Garbage Collection for Flash-Based Storage Systems", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.62, no. 11, pp. 2141-2154, Nov. 2013, doi:10.1109/TC.2012.227
REFERENCES
[1] S. Lee, D. Shin, and J. Kim, "Buffer-Aware Garbage Collection for NAND Flash Memory-Based Storage Systems," Proc. Int'l Workshop Software Support for Portable Storage, pp. 27-32, 2008.
[2] S. Lee, D. Shin, and J. Kim, "Buffer-Aware Garbage Collection Technique for NAND Flash-Based Storage Devices," Technical Report TR-CARES-04-11, http://cares.snu.ac.kr/downloadTR-CARES-04-11.pdf , 2011.
[3] J.-U. Kang, J.-S. Kim, C. Park, H. Park, and J. Lee, "A Multi-Channel Architecture for High-Performance NAND Flash-Based Storage System," J. Systems Architecture, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 644-658, 2007.
[4] "K9WBG08U1M NAND Flash Memory," Samsung Corp., 2007.
[5] M. Wu and W. Zwaenepoel, "eNVy: A Non-Volatile, Main Memory Storage System," Proc. Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, pp. 86-97, 1994.
[6] H.-J. Kim and S.-G. Lee, "A New Flash Memory Management for Flash Storage System," Proc. Computer Software and Applications Conf., pp. 284-289, 1999.
[7] H.-L. Li, C.-L. Yang, and H.-W. Tseng, "Energy-Aware Flash Memory Management in Virtual Memory System," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 952-964, Aug. 2008.
[8] A. Ban, "Flash File System," US patent 5,404,485, Washington, D.C.: Patent and Trademark Office, Apr. 1995.
[9] J. Kim, J.M. Kim, S.H. Noh, S.L. Min, and Y. Cho, "A Space-Efficient Flash Translation Layer for Compact Flash Systems," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 366-375, May 2002.
[10] S.-W. Lee, D.-J. Park, T.-S. Chung, D.-H. Lee, S. Park, and H.-J. Song, "A Log Buffer Based Flash Translation Layer Using Fully Associative Sector Translation," ACM Trans. Embedded Computing Systems, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-27, 2007.
[11] J.-U. Kang, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and J. Lee, "A Superblock-Based Flash Translation Layer for NAND Flash Memory," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Software, pp. 161-170, 2006.
[12] S. Boboila and P. Desnoyers, "Write Endurance in Flash Drives: Measurements and Analysis," Proc. USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, pp. 115-128, 2010.
[13] S. Boboila and P. Desnoyers, "Performance Models of Flash-Based Solid-State Drives for Real Workloads," Proc. Symp. Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, pp. 1-6, 2011.
[14] S.-W. Lee, B. Moon, C. Park, J.-M. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, "A Case for Flash Memory SSD in Enterprise Database Applications," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 1075-1086, 2008.
[15] H. Jo, J.-U. Kang, S.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, and J. Lee, "FAB: Flash-Aware Buffer Management Policy for Portable Media Players," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 485-493, May 2006.
[16] H. Kim and S. Ahn, "BPLRU: A Buffer Management Scheme for Improving Random Writes in Flash Storage," Proc. USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, pp. 239-252, 2008.
[17] D. Seo and D. Shin, "Recently-Evicted-First Buffer Replacement Policy for Flash Storage Devices," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1228-1235, Aug. 2008.
[18] S. Ji and D. Shin, "Locality and Duplication-Aware Garbage Collection for Flash Memory-Based Virtual Memory Systems," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer and Information Technology, pp. 1764-1771, 2010.
[19] Y.J. Seong, E.H. Nam, J.H. Yoon, H. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y.H. Bae, J. Lee, Y. Cho, and S.L. Min, "Hydra: A Block-Mapped Parallel Flash Memory Solid-State Disk Architecture," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 905-921, July 2010.
[20] M. Russinovich, "DiskMon for Windows v2.01," http://technet. microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals bb896646.aspx, 2006.
62 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool