The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.10 - Oct. (2013 vol.62)
pp: 1945-1958
Yong Lu , Tsinghua University, Beijing
Youjian Zhao , Tsinghua University, Beijing
Fuchun Sun , Tsinghua University, Beijing
Hongbo Li , Tsinghua University, Beijing
Dianjun Wang , Tsinghua University, Beijing
We formalize the construction of fault blocks by a state transition model based on finite state automata. Based on the model, a boundary diffusion method is presented for the rectilinear-monotone orthogonal convex fault model such as the rectangular fault model and minimal-connected-component (MCC) faulty model, whereby an adaptive fault-tolerant routing algorithm, called X-Y boundary routing algorithm (X-YBRA), is presented for deadlock-free fault-tolerant adaptive routing outside the fault blocks. To improve the network resources utilization, we put forward a routing diffusion method in the fault block, which completely solves the routing problem in the fault block. The experiment result shows that the diffusion overhead of our method is far lower than that of the traditional routing algorithms such as distance vector and link state routing algorithms with the light loss in convergence time. For the occurrence and recovery of random faults, the expansion and shrinkage of the fault block are also discussed. Accordingly, the dynamic boundary and routing updating methods are put forward to respond to these cases. Based on these methods, we develop low earth orbit satellite networks into an adaptive fault-tolerant system in routing. Our works can be also applied to other 2D mesh networks such as the interconnect multiprocessor computer systems.
Routing, Low earth orbit satellites, Fault tolerance, Fault tolerant systems, Orbits, Topology, finite state automata (FSA), Low earth orbit (LEO), satellite networks, fault-tolerant
Yong Lu, Youjian Zhao, Fuchun Sun, Hongbo Li, Dianjun Wang, "Dynamic Fault-Tolerant Routing Based on FSA for LEO Satellite Networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.62, no. 10, pp. 1945-1958, Oct. 2013, doi:10.1109/TC.2012.127
[1] M. Werner, "A Dynamic Routing Concept for ATM-Based Satellite Personal Communication Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1636-1648, Aug. 1997.
[2] R. Mauger and C. Rosenberg, "QoS Guarantees for Multimedia Services on a TDMA-Based Satellite Network," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 56-65, July 1997.
[3] H.S. Chang, B.W. Kim, and C. Lee, "FSA-Based Link Assignment and Routing in Low-Earth Orbit Satellite Networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1037-1048, Aug. 1998.
[4] V.V. Gounder, R. Prakash, and H. Abu-Amara, "Routing in LEO-Based Satellite Networks," Proc. Wireless Comm. and Systems Workshop, pp. 2211-2216, 1999.
[5] H. Uzunalioglu, I.F. Akyildiz, and M.D. Bender, "A Routing Algorithm for LEO Satellite Networks with Dynamic Connectivity," ACM-Baltzer J. Wireless Networks (WINET), vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 181-190, June 2000.
[6] T. Henderson and H. Katz, "On Distributed Geographic Based Packet Routing for LEO Satellite Networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM), pp. 1119-1123, 2000.
[7] E. Ekici, I.F. Akyildiz, and M.D. Bender, "A Distributed Routing Algorithm for Datagram Traffic in LEO Satellite Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 137-147, Apr. 2001.
[8] M.D. Sanctis, E. Cianca, and M. Ruggieri, "IP Based Routing Algorithm for LEO Satellite Networks in Near Polar Orbits," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., pp. 3_1273-3_1280, Mar. 2003.
[9] W. Kaidong, Y. Kechu, T. Bin, and W. Chengke, "Packet Routing Algorithm for Polar Orbit LEO Satellite Constellation Network," Science in China: Series F Information Sciences, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 103-127, 2006.
[10] J. Ferreira and J. Galtier, "Topological Design, Routing and Hand-Over in Satellite Networks," Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, pp. 473-507, Wiley, 2005.
[11] R. Libeskind-Hadas, K. Watkins, and T. Hehre, "Fault-Tolerant Multicast Routing in the Mesh with No Virtual Channels," Proc. Second Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture, pp. 180-190, 1995.
[12] G.J. Glass and L.M. Ni, "Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in Meshes without Virtual Channels," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 6201-636, June 1996.
[13] R. Libeskind-Hadas and E. Brandt, "Origin-Based Fault-Tolerant Routing in the Mesh," Proc. First Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture, pp. 102-111, Jan. 1995.
[14] J. Wu, "Fault-Tolerant Adaptive and Minimal Routing in Mesh-Connected Multicomputers Using Extended Safety Levels," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 149-159, Feb. 2000.
[15] J. Wu, "A Distributed Formulation of Smallest Faulty Orthogonal Convex Polygons in 2-D Meshes," Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2001.
[16] J. Wu, "A Fault-Tolerant and Deadlock-Free Routing Protocol in 2D Meshes Based on Odd-Even Turn Model," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1154-1169, Aug. 2003.
[17] J. Wu, "A Adaptive Formation of Orthogonal Convex Polygonsin Mesh-Connected Multicomputers," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 62, pp. 1168-1185, 2002.
[18] D. Wang, "A Rectilinear-Monotone Polygonal Fault Block Model for Fault-Tolerant Minimal Routing in Mesh," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 310-320, Mar. 2003.
[19] D. Wang, "A Heuristic Fault-Tolerant Routing Algorithm in Mesh Using Rectilinear-Monotone Polygonal Fault Blocks," J. Systems Architecture, vol 53, no. 9, pp. 619-628, 2007.
[20] J. Wu and Z. Jiang, "On Constructing the Minimum Orthogonal Convex Polygon for the Fault-Tolerant Routing in 2-D Faulty Meshes," IEEE Trans. Reliability, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 449-458, Sept. 2005.
[21] A.A. Chien and J.H. Kim, "Planar-Adaptive Routing: Low Cost Adaptive Networks for Multiprocessors," Proc. 19th Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, pp. 268-277, 1992.
[22] C.C. Su and K.G. Shin, "Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Deadlock-Free Routing in Meshes and Hypercubes," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 666-683, June 1996.
[23] P.H. Sui and S.D. Wang, "An Improved Algorithm for Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in Meshes," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1040-1042, Sept. 1997.
[24] R.V. Boppana and S. Chalasani, "Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing Algorithms for Mesh Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 848-864, July 1995.
[25] Y.M. Boura and C.R. Das, "Fault-Tolerant Routing in Mesh Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing, pp. 106-109, 1995.
[26] J. Zhou and F. Lau, "Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in 2D Meshes," Proc. 15th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '01), p. 56, 2001.
[27] P.H. Sui and S.D. Wang, "An Improved Algorithm for Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in Meshes," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1040-1042, Sept. 1997.
[28] M.-J. Tsai and S.-D. Wang, "Adaptive and Deadlock-Free Routing for Irregular Faulty Patterns in Mesh Multicomputers," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 50-63, Jan. 2000.
[29] C.T. Ho and L. Stockmeyer, "A New Approach to Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing for Mesh-Connected Parallel Computers," Proc. IEEE 16th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., 2002.
[30] X. Duan, D. Zhang, and X.S. Stockmeyer, "Fault-Tolerant Routing Schemes for Wormhole Mesh," Proc. IEEE 16th Int'l Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing with Application, pp. 298-301, 2009.
[31] W. Luo and D. Xiang, "An Efficient Adaptive Deadlock-Free Routing Algorithm for Torus Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 800-808, May 2012.
[32] A. Mortazavi and F. Safaei, "Dynamic Fault-Tolerant Wormhole Routing in 2-D Meshes," Proc. 15th IEEE Int'l Symp on Computer Architecture and Digital Systems, (CADS 2010), pp. 77-82 2010.
[33] D. Xiang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Pan, "Practical Deadlock-Free Fault-Tolerant Routing in Meshes Based on the Planar Network Fault Model," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 620-633, May. 2009.
[34] D. Xiang, "Deadlock-Free Adaptive Routing in Mesheswith Fault-Tolerance Ability Based on Channel Overlapping," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 74-88, Feb. 2011.
[35] M.A. Sturza, "Architecture of the Teledesic Satellite System," Proc. Int'l Mobile Satellite Conf. (IMSC), pp. 214-218, 1995.
[36] R. Kucukates and C. Ersoy, "Minimum Flow Maximum Residual Routing in LEO Satellite Networks Using Routing Set," Wireless Networks, vol. 14, pp. 501-517, 2008.
[37] L.M Ni and P.K. McKinley, "A Survey of Wormhole Routing Techniques in Direct Networks," IEEE Computer, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 62-76, Feb. 1993.
67 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool