Subscribe

Issue No.05 - May (2013 vol.62)

pp: 990-1003

Jasma Balasangameshwara , Calgotias College of Technology, Greater Noida

Nedunchezhian Raju , Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.2012.44

ABSTRACT

Computational grids provide a massive source of processing power, providing the means to support processor intensive applications. The strong burstiness and unpredictability of the available resources raise the need to make applications robust against the dynamics of grid environment. The two main techniques that are most suitable to cope with the dynamic nature of the grid are load balancing and job replication. In this work, we develop a load-balancing algorithm by juxtaposes the strong points of neighbor-based and cluster-based load-balancing methods. We then integrate the proposed load-balancing approach with fault-tolerant scheduling namely MinRC and develop a performance-driven fault-tolerant load-balancing algorithm or PD_MinRC for independent jobs. In order to improve system flexibility, reliability, and save system resource, PD_MinRC employs passive replication scheme. Our main objective is to arrive at job assignments that could achieve minimum response time, maximum resource utilization, and a well-balanced load across all the resources involved in a grid. Experiments were conducted to show the applicability of PD_MinRC. One advantage of our approach is the relatively low overhead and robust performance against resource failures and inaccuracies in performance prediction information.

INDEX TERMS

Load management, Processor scheduling, Heuristic algorithms, Fault tolerance, Fault tolerant systems, Delay, Scheduling, fault tolerance, Load management, Processor scheduling, Heuristic algorithms, Fault tolerance, Fault tolerant systems, Delay, Scheduling, job scheduling, Computational grid, load balancing

CITATION

Jasma Balasangameshwara, Nedunchezhian Raju, "Performance-Driven Load Balancing with a Primary-Backup Approach for Computational Grids with Low Communication Cost and Replication Cost",

*IEEE Transactions on Computers*, vol.62, no. 5, pp. 990-1003, May 2013, doi:10.1109/TC.2012.44REFERENCES

- [1]
The Grid: Blueprint for a Future Computing Infrastructure, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, eds., second ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.- [2] Q. Zheng, C.-K. Tham, and B. Veeravalli, "Dynamic Load Balancing and Pricing in Grid Computing with Communication Delay,"
J. Grid Computing, vol. 6, pp. 239-253, 2008.- [3] S. Dhakal, M.M. Hayat, J.E. Pezoa, C. Yang, and D.A. Bader, "Dynamic Load Balancing in Distributed Systems in the Presence of Delays: A Regeneration Theory Approach,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 485-497, Apr. 2007.- [4] K.-Q. Yan, S.-S. Wang, S.-C. Wang, and C.-P. Chang, "Towards a Hybrid Load Balancing Policy in Grid Computing System,"
Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 36, pp. 12054-12064, 2009.- [5] P.K Suri and M. Singh, "An Efficient Decentralized Load Balancing Algorithm for Grid,"
Proc. IEEE Int'l Advance Computing Conf., pp. 10-13, 2010.- [6] K. Li, "Optimal Load Distribution in Non Dedicated Heterogeneous Cluster and Grid Computing Environments,"
J. Systems Architecture: The EUROMICRO J., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 11-123, 2008.- [7] C. Kandagatla, "Survey and Taxonomy of Grid Resource Management System," http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/browne/cs395f2003/ projectsKandagatlaReport.pdf, 2003.
- [8] K. Qureshi, A. Rehman, and P. Manuel, "Enhanced GridSim Architecture with Load Balancing,"
The J. Supercomputing, vol. 57, pp. 265-275, 2010.- [9] H. Kameda, J. Li, C. Kim, and Y. Zhang,
Optimal Load Balancing in Distributed Computer Systems. Springer, 1997.- [10] R. Subrata, A.Y. Zomaya, and B. Landfeldt, "Game-Theoretic Approach for Load Balancing in Computational Grids,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 66-76, Jan. 2008.- [11] F.Z. Karimi, A..B. Jantan, A.R Ramli, M. Iqbal, and B. Saripan, "A New Fuzzy Approach for Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm,"
Int'l J. Computer Science and Information Security, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2009.- [12] N.G. Shivaratri, P.H. Krueger, and M. Singhal, "Load Distributing for Locally Distributed Systems,"
Computer, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 33-44, Dec. 1992.- [13] J. Kolodziej and F. Xhafa, "Enhancing the Genetic-Based Scheduling in Computational Grids by a Structural Hierarchical Population,"
Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 27, pp. 1035-1046, 2011.- [14] Y.-H. Lee, S. Leu, and R.-S. Chang, "Improving Job Scheduling Algorithms in a Grid Environment,"
Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 27, pp. 991-998, 2011.- [15] A. Benoit, M. Hakem, and Y. Robert, "Multi-Criteria Scheduling of Precedence Task Graphs on Heterogeneous Platforms,"
The Computer J., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 772-785, 2010.- [16] K. Nishimura, H. Ueno, M. Yamamoto, and H. Ikeda, "A Dynamic Load Balancing Method Based on Network Delay for Large Distributed Systems,"
Electronics and Comm. in Japan (Part I: Comm.), vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 11-21, 2001.- [17] R. Elsasser, B. Monien, and R. Preis, "Diffusion Schemes for Load Balancing on Heterogeneous Networks,"
Theory of Computing Systems, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 305-320, 2002.- [18] D. Grosu and A.T. Chronopoulus, "Non Cooperative Load Balancing in Distributed Systems,"
J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 65, pp. 1022-1034, 2005.- [19] K. Lu, R. Subrata, and A.Y. Zomaya, "An Efficient Load Balancing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grid Systems Considering Desirability of Grid Sites,"
Proc. 25th IEEE Int'l Performance Computing and Comm. Conf. (IPCCC '06), 2006.- [20] K. Lu, R. Subrata, and A.Y. Zomaya, "Towards Decentralized Load Balancing in a Computational Grid Environment,"
Proc. First Int'l Conf. Advances in Grid and Pervasive Computing (GPC '06), Y.-C. Chung and J.E. Moreira, eds., pp. 466-477, 2006.- [21] K. Lu, R. Subrata, and A.Y. Zomaya, "On the Performance Driven Load Distribution for Heterogeneous Computational Grids,"
J. Computer and System Science, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 1191-1206, 2007.- [22] R. Subrata, A.Y Zomaya, and B. Landfeldt, "Artificial Life Techniques for Load Balancing in Computational Grids,"
J. Computer and System Sciences, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 1176-1190, 2007.- [23] S. Ruchir, V. Bharadwaj, and M. Manoj, "On the Design of Adaptive and De-Centralized Load Balancing Algorithms with Load Estimation for Computational Grid Environments,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1675-1686, Dec. 2007.- [24] R. Subrata, A.Y. Zomaya, and B. Landfeldt, "Game-Theoretic Approach for Load Balancing in Computational Grids,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 66-76, Jan. 2008.- [25] D. Grosu, A.T. Chronopoulous, and M.Y. Leung, "Cooperative Load Balancing in Distributed Systems,"
Concurrency and Computation: Practices and Experience, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 1953-1976, 2008.- [26] K.S. Chatrapati, J.U. Rekha, and A.V. Babu, "Competitive Equilibrium Approach for Load Balancing a Computational Grid with Communication Delays,"
J. Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 126-133, 2010.- [27] J. Balasangameshwara and N. Raju, "A Decentralized Recent Neighbor Load Balancing Algorithm for Computational Grid,"
The Int'l J. ACM Jordan, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 128-133, Sept. 2010.- [28] N. Malarvizhi and R.V. Uthariaraj, "Hierarchical Status Information Exchange Scheduling and Load Balancing for Computational Grid Environments,"
Int'l J. Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 177-185, 2011.- [29] M. Nandagopal and V.R. Uthariaraj, "Decentralized Dynamic Load Balancing for Multi Cluster Grid Environment,"
Proc. First Int'l Conf. Computer Science and Information Technology (CCSIT '11), pp. 149-160, 2011.- [30] T.D. Braun, H.J. Siegel, and N. Beck, "A Comparison of Eleven Static Heuristics for Mapping a Class of Independent Tasks onto Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Systems,"
J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 61, pp. 810-837, 2001.- [31] S.-D. Wang, I.-T. Hsu, and Z.-Y. Huang, "Dynamic Scheduling Methods for Computational Grid Environments,"
Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 1, pp. 22-28, 2005.- [32] H. Yan, X.-Q. Shen, X. Li, and M.-H. Wu, "An Improved Ant Algorithm for Job Scheduling in Grid Environment,"
Proc. Int'l Conf. Machine Learning and Cybernetics, pp. 2957-2961, 2005.- [33] F. Xhafa, L. Barolli, and A. Durresi, "Immediate Mode Scheduling of Independent Jobs on Computational Grids,"
Proc. Int'l Conf. Advanced Networking and Applications, pp. 970-977, 2007.- [34] A.M. Mehta, J. Smith, H.J. Siegel, A.A. Maciejewski, A. Jayaseelan, and B. Ye, "Dynamic Resource Allocation Heuristics that Manage Tradeoff between Makespan and Robustness,"
J. Supercomputing, Special Issue on Grid Technology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 33-58, 2007.- [35] P. Sugavanam, H.J. Siegel, A.A. Maciejewski, M. Oltikar, A. Mehta, R. Pichel, A. Horiuchi, V. Shestak, M. Al-Otaibi, Y. Krishnamurthy, S. Ali, J. Zhang, M. Aydin, P. Lee, K. Grusru, M. Raskey, and A. Pippin, "Robust Static Allocation of Resources for Independent Tasks under Makespan and Dollar Cost Constraints,"
J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 400-416, 2007.- [36] V. Shestak, J. Smith, H.J. Siegel, and A.A. Maciejewski, "Stochastic Robustness Metric and Its Use for Static Resource Allocations,"
J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 1157-1173, 2008.- [37] R.-S. Chang, J.-S. Chang, and P.-S. Lin, "An Ant Algorithm for Balanced Job Scheduling in Grids,"
Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 20-27, 2009.- [38] S. Ghosh, R. Melhem, and D. Mosse, "Fault-Tolerance through Scheduling of Aperiodic Tasks in Hard Real-Time Multiprocessor Systems,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 272-284, Mar. 1997.- [39] G. Manimaran and C.S.R. Murthy, "A Fault-Tolerant Dynamic Scheduling Algorithm for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems and Its Analysis,"
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1137-1152, Nov. 1998.- [40] R.A. -Omari, A.K. Somani, and G. Maninaran, "A New Fault-Tolerant Technique for Improving Schedulability in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems,"
Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2001.- [41] J.H. Abawajy, "Fault-Tolerant Scheduling Policy for Grid Computing Systems,"
Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2004.- [42] W. Luo, J. Li, F. Yang, G. Tu, L. Pang, and L. Shu, "DYFARS: Boosting Reliability in Fault-Tolerant Heterogeneous Distributed Systems through Dynamic Scheduling,"
Proc. Eight ACIS Int'l Conf. Software Eng., Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD '07), pp. 640-645, 2007.- [43] Q. Zheng, B. Veeravalli, and C.-K. Tham, "On the Design of Fault-Tolerant Scheduling Strategies Using Primary-Backup Approach for Computational Grids with Low Replication Costs,"
IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 380-393, Mar. 2009.- [44] X. Zhu, X. Qin, and M. Qiu, "Qos-Aware Fault-Tolerant Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks on Heterogeneous Clusters,"
IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 800-813, June 2011.- [45] A.L. Simone and A. Moallem, "Swarm Intelligence Approaches for Grid Load Balancing,"
J. Grid Computing, vol. 9, pp. 279-301, 2011.- [46] H. Casanova and L. Marchal, "A Network Model for Simulation of Grid Application," Research Report 2002-40, 2002.
- [47] A. Legrand, L. Marchal, and H. Casanova, "Scheduling Distributed Applications: The SimGrid Simulation Framework,"
Proc. Third IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Cluster Computing and the Grid, pp. 138-145, 2003.- [48] R. Wolski, N. Spring, and J. Hayes, "The Network Weather Service: A Distributed Resource Performance Forecasting Service for Meta-Computing,"
J. Future Generation Computing Systems, vol. 15, pp. 757-768, 1999.- [49] R. Buyya and M.M Murshed, "Gridsim: A Toolkit for the Modelling and Simulation of Distributed Resource Management and Scheduling for Grid Computing,"
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 14, pp. 1175-1220, 2002. |