The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - April (2013 vol.62)
pp: 662-675
Hung-Chang Hsiao , Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Inf. Eng., Nat. Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan
Che-Wei Chang , Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Inf. Eng., Nat. Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan
ABSTRACT
Peers participating in a distributed hash table (DHT) may host different numbers of virtual servers and are enabled to balance their loads in the reallocation of virtual servers. Most decentralized load balance algorithms designed for DHTs based on virtual servers require the participating peers to be asymmetric, where some serve as the rendezvous nodes to pair virtual servers and participating peers, thereby introducing another load imbalance problem. While state-of-the-art studies intend to present symmetric load balancing algorithms, they introduce significant algorithmic overheads and guarantee no rigorous performance metrics. In this paper, a novel symmetric load balancing algorithm for DHTs is presented by having the participating peers approximate the system state with histograms and cooperatively implement a global index. Each peer independently reallocates in our proposal its locally hosted virtual servers by publishing and inquiring the global index based on their histograms. Unlike competitive algorithms, our proposal exhibits analytical performance guarantees in terms of the load balance factor and the algorithmic convergence rate, and introduces no load imbalance problem due to the algorithmic workload. Through computer simulations, we show that our proposal clearly outperforms existing distributed algorithms in terms of load balance factor with a comparable movement cost.
INDEX TERMS
resource allocation, distributed processing, file organisation, movement cost, symmetric load balancing algorithm, analytical performance guarantees, distributed hash tables, DHT, virtual servers, decentralized load balance algorithms, rendezvous nodes, histogram, global index, load balance factor, algorithmic convergence rate, algorithmic workload, Servers, Peer to peer computing, Load management, Proposals, Heuristic algorithms, Indexes, Algorithm design and analysis, virtual server, Distributed hash tables, load balance
CITATION
Hung-Chang Hsiao, Che-Wei Chang, "A Symmetric Load Balancing Algorithm with Performance Guarantees for Distributed Hash Tables", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.62, no. 4, pp. 662-675, April 2013, doi:10.1109/TC.2012.13
REFERENCES
[1] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Liben-Nowell, D.R. Karger, M.F. Kaashoek, F. Dabek, and H. Balakrishnan, "Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17-21, Feb. 2003.
[2] A. Rowstron and P. Druschel, "Pastry: Scalable, Distributed Object Location and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. IFIP/ACM Int'l Conf. Distributed Systems Platforms, pp. 161-172, Nov. 2001.
[3] G. DeCandia, D. Hastorun, M. Jampani, G. Kakulapati, A. Lakshman, A. Pilchin, S. Sivasubramanian, P. Vosshall, and W. Vogels, "Dynamo: Amazon's Highly Available Key-Value Store," Proc. 21st ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '07), pp. 205-220, Oct. 2007.
[4] BitTorrent, http://www.bittorrent.orgindex.html, 2012.
[5] J. Stribling, E. Sit, M.F. Kaashoek, J. Li, and R. Morris, "Don't Give Up on Distributed File Systems," Proc. Sixth Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '07), Feb. 2007.
[6] A. Rao, K. Lakshminarayanan, S. Surana, R. Karp, and I. Stoica, "Load Balancing in Structured P2P Systems," Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '02), pp. 68-79, Feb. 2003.
[7] S. Surana, B. Godfrey, K. Lakshminarayanan, R. Karp, and I. Stoica, "Load Balancing in Dynamic Structured P2P Systems," Performance Evaluation, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 217-240, Mar. 2006.
[8] C. Chen and K.-C. Tsai, "The Server Reassignment Problem for Load Balancing in Structured P2P Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 234-246, Feb. 2008.
[9] Y. Zhu and Y. Hu, "Efficient, Proximity-Aware Load Balancing for DHT-Based P2P Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 349-361, Apr. 2005.
[10] H. Shen and C.-Z. Xu, "Locality-Aware and Churn-Resilient Load Balancing Algorithms in Structured P2P Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 849-862, June 2007.
[11] H.-C. Hsiao, H. Liao, S.-S. Chen, and K.-C. Huang, "Load Balance with Imperfect Information in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 634-649, Apr. 2011.
[12] H.-C. Lin and C.S. Raghavendra, "A Dynamic Load-Balancing Policy with a Central Job Dispatcher (LBC)," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 148-158, Feb. 1992.
[13] F.C.H. Lin and R.M. Keller, "The Gradient Model Load Balancing Method," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 32-38, Jan. 1987.
[14] L.M. Ni and K. Hwang, "Optimal Load Balancing in a Multiple Processor System with Many Job Classes," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 491-496, May 1985.
[15] L.M. Ni, C.-W. Xu, and T.B. Gendreau, "A Distributed Drafting Algorithm for Load Balancing," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1153-1161, Oct. 1985.
[16] T.L. Casavant and J.G. Kuhl, "A Taxonomy of Scheduling in General-Purpose Distributed Computing Systems," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 141-154, Feb. 1988.
[17] Y. Zhu, "Load Balancing in Structured P2P Networks," Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking, Springer, July 2009.
[18] H. Shen, "Load Balancing in Peer-to-Peer Systems," Handbook of Research on Scalable Computing Technologies, IGI Global, July 2009.
[19] A. Bharambe, M. Agrawal, and S. Seshan, "Mercury: Supporting Scalable Multi-Attribute Range Queries," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '04, pp. 353-366, Aug. 2004.
[20] P. Ganesan, M. Bawa, and H. Garcia-Molina, "Online Balancing of Range-Partitioned Data with Applications to Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB '04), pp. 444-455, Sept. 2004.
[21] D. Karger and M. Ruhl, "Simple Efficient Load Balancing Algorithms for Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. 16th ACM Symp. Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA '04), pp. 36-43, June 2004.
[22] K. Kenthapadi and G.S. Manku, "Decentralized Algorithms Using Both Local and Random Probes for P2P Load Balancing," Proc. 17th ACM Symp. Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA '05), pp. 135-144, July 2005.
[23] Q.H. Vu, B.C. Ooi, M. Rinard, and K.-L. Tan, "Histogram-Based Global Load Balancing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 595-608, Apr. 2009.
[24] P. Fonseca, R. Rodrigues, A. Gupta, and B. Liskov, "Full-Information Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays," IEEE Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1339-1351, Sept. 2009.
[25] L. Massoulié, E.L. Merrer, A.-M. Kermarrec, and A. Ganesh, "Peer Counting and Sampling in Overlay Networks: Random Walk Methods," Proc. 25th ACM Symp. Principles Distributed Computing (PODC '06), pp. 123-132, July 2006.
[26] M. Jelasity, A. Montresor, and O. Babaoglu, "Gossip-Based Aggregation in Large Dynamic Networks," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 219-252, Aug. 2005.
[27] C. Gkantsidis, M. Mihail, and A. Saberi, "Random Walks in Peer-to-Peer Networks: Algorithms and Evaluation," Performance Evaluation, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 241-263, Mar. 2006.
[28] A. Dvoretzky, J. Kiefer, and J. Wolfowitz, "Asymptotic Minimax Character of the Sample Distribution Function and of the Classical Multinomial Estimator," Annals Math. Statistics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 642-669, 1956.
[29] M. Mitzenmacher, "The Power of Two Choices in Randomized Load Balancing," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1094-1104, Oct. 2001.
[30] M.E.J. Newman, S.H. Strogatz, and D.J. Watts, "Random Graphs with Arbitrary Degree Distributions and Their Applications," Physical Rev. E, vol. 64, no. 2, p. 026118, July 2001.
[31] H. Chernoff, "A Measure of Asymptotic Efficiency for Tests of a Hypothesis Based on the Sum of Observations," Annals Math. Statistics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 493-507, 1952.
[32] H. Shen, C.-Z. Xu, and G. Chen, "Cycloid: A Scalable Constant-Degree Lookup-Efficient P2P Overlay Network," Performance Evaluation, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 195-216, Mar. 2006.
[33] L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Phillips, and S. Shenker, "Web Caching and Zipf-Like Distributions," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, pp. 126-134, Mar. 1999.
69 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool