The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - January (2012 vol.61)
pp: 118-133
Habib M. Ammari , Hofstra University, Hempstead
Sajal K. Das , The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington
ABSTRACT
Sensing coverage is an essential functionality of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, it is also well known that coverage alone in WSNs is not sufficient, and hence network connectivity should also be considered for the correct operation of WSNs. In this paper, we address the problem of k-coverage in WSNs such that in each scheduling round, every location in a monitored field (or simply field) is covered by at least k active sensors while all active sensors are being connected. Precisely, we study sensors duty-cycling strategies for generating k-coverage configurations in WSNs. First, we model the k-coverage problem in WSNs. Second, we derive a sufficient condition of the sensor spatial density for complete k-coverage of a field. We also provide a relationship between the communication and sensing ranges of sensors to maintain both k-coverage of a field and connectivity among all active sensors. Third, we propose four configuration protocols to solve the problem of k-coverage in WSNs. We prove that our protocols select a minimum number of sensors to achieve full k-coverage of a field while guaranteeing connectivity between them. Then, we relax some widely used assumptions for coverage configuration in WSNs, to promote the use of our proposed protocols in real-world sensing applications. Our simulation results show that our protocols outperform an existing distributed k-coverage configuration protocol.
INDEX TERMS
Wireless sensor networks, coverage, connectivity, duty-cycling, Reuleaux triangle.
CITATION
Habib M. Ammari, Sajal K. Das, "Centralized and Clustered k-Coverage Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.61, no. 1, pp. 118-133, January 2012, doi:10.1109/TC.2011.82
REFERENCES
[1] Z. Abrams, A. Goel, and S. Plotkin, "Set $k$ -Cover Algorithms for Energy Efficient Monitoring in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), pp. 424-432, Apr. 2004.
[2] S. Adlakha and M. Srivastava, "Critical Density Threshold for Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking (WCNC), pp. 1615-1620, Mar. 2003.
[3] S. Alam and Z.J. Haas, "Coverage and Connectivity in Three-Dimensional Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 346-357, Sept. 2006.
[4] H.M. Ammari and S.K. Das, "Clustering-Based Minimum Energy $m$ -Connected $k$ -Covered Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Fifth European Conf. Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN '08), pp. 1-16, 2008.
[5] X. Bai, S. Kumar, D. Xuan, Z. Yun, and T.H. Lai, "Deploying Wireless Sensors to Achieve both Coverage and Connectivity," Proc. ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc '06), pp. 131-142, May 2006.
[6] B. Bollobás, The Art of Math.: Coffee Time in Memphis. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006.
[7] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "GPS-Less Low Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices," IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 28-34, Oct. 2000.
[8] M. Cardei and J. Wu, "Energy-Efficient Coverage Problems in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks," Computer Comm., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 413-420, 2006.
[9] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris, "Span: An Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," ACM Wireless Networks vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 481-494, 2002.
[10] A. Chen, S. Kumar, and T.H. Lai, "Designing Localized Algorithms for Barrier Coverage," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 75-86, Sept. 2007.
[11] J. Cortes, S. Martinez, T. Karatas, and F. Bullo, "Coverage Control for Mobile Sensing Networks," IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 243-255, Apr. 2004.
[12] H. Gupta, Z. Zhou, S.R. Das, and Q. Gu, "Connected Sensor Cover: Self-Organization of Sensor Networks for Efficient Query Execution," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 55-67, Feb. 2006.
[13] P. Hall, Introduction to the Theory of Coverage Processes. Wiley, 1988.
[14] C.-F. Huang and Y.-C. Tseng, "The Coverage Problem in a Wireless Sensor Network," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA '03), pp. 115-121, Sept. 2003.
[15] C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, and H.-L. Wu, "Distributed Protocols for Ensuring Both Coverage and Connectivity of a Wireless Sensor Network," ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-24, 2007.
[16] M.P. Johnson, D. Sarioz, A. Bar-Noy, T. Brown, D. Verma, and C.W. Wu, "More is More: The Benefits of Denser Sensor Deployment," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.
[17] R. Kershner, "The Number of Circles Covering a Set," Am. J. Math., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 665-671, 1939.
[18] S. Kumar, T.H. Lai, and A. Arora, "Barrier Coverage with Wireless Sensors," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 284-298, Aug./Sept. 2005.
[19] S. Kumar, T.H. Lai, and J. Balogh, "On $k$ -Coverage in a Mostly Sleeping Sensor Network," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 144-158, Sept./Oct. 2004.
[20] S. Kumar, T.H. Lai, M.E. Posner, and P. Sinha, "Optimal Sleep-Wakeup Algorithms for Barriers of Wireless Sensors," Proc. IEEE Fourth Int'l Conf. Broadband Comm. Networks and Systems (BROADNETS), Sept. 2007.
[21] L. Lazos and R. Poovendran, "Stochastic Coverage in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks," ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 325-358, 2006.
[22] X.-Y. Li, P.-J. Wan, and O. Frieder, "Coverage in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 753-763, June 2003.
[23] B. Liu, P. Brass, and O. Dousse, "Mobility Improves Coverage of Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Sixth Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc '05), pp. 300-308, May 2005.
[24] C. Liu, K. Wu, Y. Xiao, and B. Sun, "Random Coverage with Guaranteed Connectivity: Joint Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 562-575, June 2006.
[25] J. Luo and J.-P. Hubaux, "Joint Mobility and Routing for Lifetime Elongation in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1735-1746, Mar. 2005.
[26] S. Megerian, F. Koushanfar, M. Potkonjak, and M. Srivastava, "Worst and Best-Case Coverage in Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 84-92, Jan./Feb. 2005.
[27] S. Megerian, F. Koushanfar, M. Potkonjak, and M. Srivastava, "Coverage Problems in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1380-1387, Apr. 2001.
[28] S. Nath and P.B. Gibbons, "Communicating via Fireflies: Geographic Routing on Duty-Cycled Sensors," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '07), pp. 440-449, Apr. 2007.
[29] D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, "Deployment Analysis in Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM First Int'l Workshop Underwater Networks (WUWNet '06), pp. 48-55, Sept. 2006.
[30] V. Ravelomanana, "Extremal Properties of Three-Dimensional Sensor Networks with Applications," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 246-257, July/Aug. 2004.
[31] S. Shakkottai, R. Srikant, and N. Shroff, "Unreliable Sensor Grids: Coverage, Connectivity and Diameter," J. Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 702-716, 2005.
[32] E. Shih, S.-H. Cho, N. Ickes, R. Min, A. Sinha, A. Wang, and A. Chandrakasan, "Physical Layer Driven Protocol and Algorithm Design for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 272-287, July 2001.
[33] D. Tian and N. Georganas, "Connectivity Maintenance and Coverage Preservation in Wireless Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 744-761, 2005.
[34] G. Xing, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Lu, R. Pless, and C. Gill, "Integrated Coverage and Connectivity Configuration for Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks," ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 1, pp. 36-72, 2005.
[35] S. Yang, F. Dai, M. Cardei, and J. Wu, "On Connected Multiple Point Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Int'l J. Wireless Information Networks, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 289-301, 2006.
[36] M. Yarvis, N. Kushalnagar, H. Singh, A. Rangarajan, Y. Liu, and S. Singh, "Exploiting Heterogeneity in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 878-890, Mar. 2005.
[37] F. Ye, G. Zhong, J. Cheng, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, "PEAS: A Robust Energy Conserving Protocol for Long-Lived Sensor Networks," Proc. 23rd Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '03), pp. 1-10, May 2003.
[38] B. Yener, M. Magdon-Ismail, and F. Sivrikaya, "Joint Problem of Power Optimal Connectivity and Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," J. Wireless Networks, vol. 13, pp. 537-550, 2007.
[39] H. Zhang and J. Hou, "Maintaining Sensing Coverage and Connectivity in Large Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks, vol. 1, nos. 1/2, pp. 89-124, 2005.
[40] J. Zhao and R. Govindan, "Understanding Packet Delivery Performance in Dense Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM First Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), pp. 1-13, Nov. 2003.
[41] Z. Zhou, S. Das, and H. Gupta, "Connected $k$ -Coverage Problem in Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN), pp. 373-378, Oct. 2004.
[42] Z. Zhou, S. Das, and H. Gupta, "Fault Tolerant Connected Sensor Cover with Variable Sensing and Transmission Ranges," Proc. IEEE Second Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), pp. 594-604, Sept. 2005.
[43] G. Zhou, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, and J. Stankovic, "Impact of Radio Irregularity on Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '04), pp. 125-138, June 2004.
[44] Y. Zou and K. Chakrabarty, "A Distributed Coverage- and Connectivity-Centric Technique for Selecting Active Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computer, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 978-991, Aug. 2005.
16 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool