Subscribe

Issue No.12 - December (2011 vol.60)

pp: 1759-1771

Xinfa Hu , New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark

Guoliang Xing , Michigan State University, East Lansing

Joseph Y.-T. Leung , New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.2010.186

ABSTRACT

In Distributed Real-Time Systems (DRTSs), computation and communication are the main operations contained in activities. The timeliness of activities depends on that of computations and communications. Furthermore, the timeliness of computations relies on that of communications, and vice versa. Hence, the interplay between computation and communication is inherently a key factor in determining the timeliness of activities. This paper proposes a class of general utility functions under the utility accrual model {\rm UAM}^{\rm + } to capture and characterize this interplay. Accordingly, a technique called Dynamic Deadline Adjustment (DDA) is proposed to fully explore such interplay and help resource managers proceed toward utility accrual. An online algorithm called IDRSA, which integrates the DDA technique, is developed to perform resource scheduling for DRTSs. IDRSA adopts a two-level scheduling framework to decompose resource scheduling into subprocesses and distribute them to processing nodes so as to reduce the cost of resource scheduling through parallel processing. In addition, IDRSA incorporates a new data structure called testing interval tree to effectively reduce the costs of schedulability tests for tasks and messages. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of IDRSA, especially when the load of computation is heavy and/or the interplay between computation and communication is tight.

INDEX TERMS

Distributed real-time system, interplay between computation and communication, resource scheduling, utility accrual model.

CITATION

Xinfa Hu, Guoliang Xing, Joseph Y.-T. Leung, "Exploring the Interplay between Computation and Communication in Distributed Real-Time Scheduling",

*IEEE Transactions on Computers*, vol.60, no. 12, pp. 1759-1771, December 2011, doi:10.1109/TC.2010.186REFERENCES

- [1] X. Hu and J.Y-T. Leung, “Integrating Communication Cost into the Utility Accrual Model for the Resource Allocation in Distributed Real-Time Systems,”
Proc. 14th IEEE Int'l Conf. Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, Aug. 2008.- [2] R. Rajkumar, C. Lee, J. Lehoczky, and D. Siewiorek, “A Resource Allocation Model for QoS Management,”
Proc. 18th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1997.- [3] R. Rajkumar, C. Lee, J. Lehoczky, and D. Siewiorek, “Practical Solutions for QoS-Based Resource Allocations,”
Proc. 19th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1998.- [4] K. Ecker, D. Juedes, L. Welch, D. Chelberg, C. Bruggeman, F. Drews, D. Fleeman, D. Parrott, and B. Pfarr, “An Optimization Framework for Dynamic, Distributed Real-Time Systems,”
Proc. 17th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., Apr. 2003.- [5] F. Drews and L. Welch, “An Architecture and a General Optimization Framework for Resource Management in Dynamic, Distributed Real-Time Systems,”
Proc. Ninth IEEE Int'l Workshop Object-Oriented Real-Time Dependable Systems, Oct. 2003.- [6] D. Andrews, L.R. Welch, and S. Brandt, “A Framework for Using Benefit Functions in Complex Real Time Systems,”
Proc. 16th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., Apr. 2002.- [7] F. Drews, L. Welch, D. Juedes, D. Fleeman, A. Bruening, K. Ecker, and M. Hoefer, “Utility-Function Based Resource Allocation for Adaptable Applications in Dynamic, Distributed Real-Time Systems,”
Proc. 18th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., Apr. 2004.- [8] T. Hegazy and B. Ravindran, “Using Application Benefit for Proactive Resource Allocation in Asynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 945-962, Aug. 2002.- [9] J. Wang and B. Ravindran, “Time-Utility Function-Driven Switched Ethernet: Packet Scheduling Algorithm, Implementation, and Feasibility Analysis,”
IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 119-133, Feb. 2004.- [10] H. Wu, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “On the Joint Utility Accrual Model,”
Proc. 18th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., Apr. 2004.- [11] P. Li and B. Ravindran, “Fast, Best-Effort Real-Time Scheduling Algorithms,”
IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1159-1175, Sept. 2004.- [12] H. Wu, B. Ravindran, E.D. Jensen, and P. Li, “Time/Utility Function Decomposition Techniques for Utility Accrual Scheduling Algorithms in Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1138-1153, Sept. 2005.- [13] E.D. Jensen, C.D. Locke, and H. Tokuda, “A Time-Driven Scheduling Model for Real-Time Systems,”
Proc. Sixth IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1985.- [14] E.D. Jensen, “Asynchronous Decentralized Real-Time Computer Systems,”
Real-Time Computing, W.A. Halang and A.D. Stoyenko, eds., Springer-Verlag, 1994.- [15] B. Ravindran, E.D. Jensen, and P. Li, “On Recent Advances in Time/Utility Function Real-Time Scheduling and Resource Management,”
Proc. Eighth IEEE Int'l Symp. Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, May 2005.- [16] E.D. Jensen, “Timeliness in Mesosynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
Proc. Seventh IEEE Int'l Symp. Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, May 2004.- [17] E.D. Jensen, “A Timeliness Paradigm for Mesosynchronous Real-Time Systems,”
Proc. Ninth IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symp., May 2003.- [18] P. Li and B. Ravindran, “Proactive QoS Negotiation in Asynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
The J. Systems and Software, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 75-88, Sept. 2004.- [19] P. Li and B. Ravindran, “Efficiently Tolerating Failures in Asynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
J. Systems Architecture: the EUROMICRO J., vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 607-621, Oct. 2004.- [20] B. Ravindran and T. Hegazy, “RBA: A Best Effort Resource Allocation Algorithm for Asynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
J. Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 158-172, Aug. 2001.- [21] T. Hegazy and B. Ravindran, “On Decentralized Proactive Resource Allocation in Asynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems,”
Proc. Seventh IEEE Int'l Symp. High Assurance Systems Eng., Oct. 2002.- [22] B. Ravindran, P. Li, and T. Hegazy, “Proactive Resource Allocation for Asynchronous Real-Time Distributed Systems in the Presence of Processor Failures,”
J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1219-1242, Dec. 2003.- [23] C.D. Locke, “Best-Effort Decision Making for Real-Time Scheduling,” PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon Univ., CMU-CS-86-134, 1986.
- [24] R.K. Clark, “Scheduling Dependent Real-Time Activities,” PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon Univ., CMU-CS-90-155, 1990.
- [25] J.W.S. Liu,
Real-Time Systems. Prentice Hall, 2000.- [26] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, and C. Stein,
Introduction to Algorithms, second ed. MIT press, 2002.- [27] http://www.kasahara.elec.waseda.ac.jp/schedule index, Sept. 2005.
- [28] V.A.F. Almeida, I.M.M. Vasconcelos, J.N.C. Árabe, and D.A. Menascé, “Using Random Task Graphs to Investigate the Potential Benefits of Heterogeneity in Parallel Systems,”
Proc. ACM/IEEE Conf. Supercomputing, Nov. 1992.- [29] B. Ravindran, J. Anderson, and E.D. Jensen, “On Distributed Real-Time Scheduling in Networked Embedded Systems in the Presence of Crash Failures,”
Proc. Fifth IFIP Workshop Software Technologies for Future Embedded and Ubiquitous Systems, May 2007.- [30] J. Anderson, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “Consensus-Driven Distributable Thread Scheduling in Networked Embedded Systems,”
Proc. 2007 IFIP Int'l Conf. Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, Dec. 2007.- [31] S. Fahmy, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “Scheduling Distributable Real-Time Threads in the Presence of Crash Failures and Message Losses,”
Proc. ACM Symp. Applied Computing, Track on Real-Time Systems, Mar. 2008.- [32] K. Han, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “Probabilistic, Real-Time Scheduling of Distributable Threads under Dependencies in Mobile, Ad Hoc Networks,”
Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., Mar. 2007.- [33] K. Han, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “Exploiting Slack for Scheduling Dependent, Distributable Real-Time Threads in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,”
Proc. Int'l Conf. Real-Time and Network Systems, Mar. 2007.- [34] K. Han, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “RTG-L: Dependably Scheduling Real-Time Distributable Threads in Large-Scale, Unreliable Networks,”
Proc. IEEE Pacific Rim Int'l Symp. Dependable Computing, Dec. 2007.- [35] F. Huang, K. Han, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “Integrated Real-Time Scheduling and Communication with Probabilistic Timing Assurances in Unreliable Distributed Systems,”
Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Eng. of Complex Computer Systems, Mar./Apr. 2008.- [36] S. Fahmy, B. Ravindran, and E.D. Jensen, “Fast Scheduling of Distributable Real-Time Threads with Assured End-to-End Timeliness,”
Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Reliable Software Technologies— Ada-Europe 2008, June 2008. |