This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Pipelined Statistical Cipher Feedback: A New Mode for High-Speed Self-Synchronizing Stream Encryption
November 2011 (vol. 60 no. 11)
pp. 1581-1595
Howard M. Heys, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's
Liang Zhang, Avalon Microelectronics, Mount Pearl
In this paper, we introduce a new block cipher mode of operation targeted to providing high-speed hardware-based self-synchronizing stream encryption. The proposed mode is a modification of statistical cipher feedback (SCFB) mode and is designed to be implemented using pipeline architectures for the block cipher. We refer to the mode as pipelined SCFB mode or PSCFB. In this paper, we consider the implementation characteristics and show that PSCFB is able to achieve speeds that are very close to pipelined block cipher implementations configured for counter mode. Such speeds are achieved with modest latency through the system and a small amount of memory required for the system queues with a provable guarantee of no queue overflow. Further, we examine the characteristics of PSCFB mode in response to bit errors and synchronization losses in the communication channel. Specifically, we show that the error propagation factor is modest and comparable to conventional SCFB and that synchronization recovery delay is reasonable given the expectation that synchronization loss is infrequent. Given the high efficiency and good communication characteristics of the mode, it is concluded that PSCFB is an excellent choice for high-speed network applications requiring stream-oriented encryption with self-synchronizing capabilities.

[1] Nat'l Inst. of Standards and Tech nology, Advanced Encryption Standard, Fed. Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 197, Nov. 2001.
[2] O. Jung and C. Ruland, “Encryption with Statistical Self-Synchronization in Synchronous Broadband Networks,” Proc. Conf. Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES '99), pp. 340-352, 1999.
[3] H.M. Heys, “Analysis of the Statistical Cipher Feedback Mode of Block Ciphers,” IEEE Trans. Computer Eng., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 77-92, Jan. 2003.
[4] U.M. Maurer, “New Approaches to the Design of Self-Synchronizing Stream Ciphers,” Proc. Conf. Advances in Cryptology (Eurocrypt '91), pp. 458-471, 1991.
[5] J. Daemen and P. Kitsos, “The Self-Synchronizing Stream Cipher MOUSTIQUE,” New Stream Cipher Designs, pp. 210-223, Springer, 2008.
[6] eSTREAM Project Website,, 2010.
[7] S. Babbage, C. De Canniere, A. Canteaut, C. Cid, H. Gilbert, T. Johansson, M. Parker, B. Preneel, V. Rijmen, and M. Robshaw, “The eSTREAM Portfolio,” eSTREAM Project Website,, Apr. 2008.
[8] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, fourth ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.
[9] I. Verbauwhede, P. Schaumont, and H. Kuo, “Design and Performance Testing of a 2.29 GB/s Rijndael Processor,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 569-572, Mar. 2003.
[10] A. Hodjat and I. Verbauwhede, “Area-Throughput Trade-Offs for Fully Pipelined 30 to 70 Gbits/s AES Processors,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 366-372, Apr. 2006.
[11] K. Burda, “Resynchronization Interval of Self-Synchronizing Modes of Block Ciphers,” Int'l J. Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 8-13, Oct. 2007.
[12] A. Alkassar, A. Geraldy, B. Pfitzmann, and A.-R. Sadeghi, “Optimized Self-Synchronizing Mode of Operation,” Proc. Conf. Fast Software Encryption (FSE '01), pp. 78-91, Apr. 2001.
[13] K. Burda, “Modification of OCFB Mode for Fast Data Links,” Int'l J. Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 228-232, Dec. 2007.
[14] M. Bellare, A. Desai, E. Jokipii, and P. Rogaway, “A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Encryption: Analysis of DES Modes of Operation,” Proc. IEEE 38th Ann. Symp. Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 394-403, 1997.
[15] J. Daemen, J. Lano, and B. Preneel, “Chosen Ciphertext Attack on SSS,” eSTREAM Project Website,, 2005.
[16] A. Joux and F. Muller, “Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks against MOSQUITO,” Proc. Conf. Fast Software Encryption (FSE '06), pp. 390-404, 2006.

Index Terms:
Cryptography, advanced encryption standard (AES), block ciphers, mode of operation, stream ciphers, synchronization, error propagation.
Howard M. Heys, Liang Zhang, "Pipelined Statistical Cipher Feedback: A New Mode for High-Speed Self-Synchronizing Stream Encryption," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1581-1595, Nov. 2011, doi:10.1109/TC.2010.167
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.