Issue No.11 - November (2010 vol.59)
Cuauhtemoc Mancillas-López , Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional No. 2508, México
Debrup Chakraborty , Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional No. 2508, México
Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez , Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional No. 2508, México
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.2010.64
Tweakable enciphering schemes are length-preserving block cipher modes of operation that provide a strong pseudorandom permutation. It has been suggested that these schemes can be used as the main building blocks for achieving in-place disk encryption. In the past few years, there has been an intense research activity toward constructing secure and efficient tweakable enciphering schemes. But actual experimental performance data of these newly proposed schemes are yet to be reported. In this paper, we present optimized FPGA implementations of six tweakable enciphering schemes, namely, HCH, HCTR, XCB, EME, HEH, and TET, using a 128-bit AES core as the underlying block cipher. We report the performance timings of these modes when using both pipelined and sequential AES structures. The universal polynomial hash function included in the specification of HCH, HCHfp (a variant of HCH), HCTR, XCB, TET, and HEH was implemented using a Karatsuba multiplier as the main building block. We provide detailed algorithm analysis of each of the schemes trying to exploit their inherent parallelism as much as possible. Our experiments show that a sequential AES core is not an attractive option for the design of these modes as it leads to rather poor throughput. In contrast, according to our place-and-route results on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA, our designs achieve a throughput of 3.95 Gbps for HEH when using an encryption/decryption pipelined AES core, and a throughput of 5.71 Gbps for EME when using a encryption-only pipeline AES core. The performance results reported in this paper provide experimental evidence that hardware implementations of tweakable enciphering schemes can actually match and even outperform the data rates achieved by state-of-the-art disk controllers, thus showing that they might be used for achieving provably secure in-place hard disk encryption.
Disk encryption, tweakable enciphering schemes, block cipher modes of operation, Karatsuba multiplier, hardware accelerator, FPGA.
Cuauhtemoc Mancillas-López, Debrup Chakraborty, Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez, "Reconfigurable Hardware Implementations of Tweakable Enciphering Schemes", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.59, no. 11, pp. 1547-1561, November 2010, doi:10.1109/TC.2010.64