This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
ProgressFace: An Algorithm to Improve Routing Efficiency of GPSR-Like Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
June 2010 (vol. 59 no. 6)
pp. 822-834
Chia-Hung Lin, National Tsing Hua University, Hsing Chu
Shiao-An Yuan, National Tsing Hua University, Hsing Chu
Shih-Wei Chiu, National Tsing Hua University, Hsing Chu
Ming-Jer Tsai, National Tsing Hua University, Hsing Chu
In GPSR-like routing, such as GPSR, GFG, GOAFR+, and GPVFR, perimeter forwarding is used to recover from a greedy forwarding failure by routing the packet to a progress node along the face boundary. The problem of perimeter forwarding is that many hops may be taken if the packet is forwarded in the wrong direction. We propose an algorithm, termed ProgressFace, that uses an additional traversal step to decide the direction of perimeter forwarding. A concave node sends a short packet to traverse the face boundary to identify the progress set, which consists of at most four nodes, such that, for any destination, at least one progress node is in the progress set or the neighbor set. Additionally, the hop distances of the nodes in the progress set along both directions are evaluated so that the shorter one is identified. The following packets encountering the concave node each are then sent along the corresponding direction toward the progress node in the progress set or the neighbor set. Simulations show that GPSR, GFG, GOAFR+, and GPVFR each conduct a shorter routing path, if augmented with the ProgressFace algorithm.

[1] A. Datta, "A Fault-Tolerant Protocol for Energy-Efficient Permutation Routing in Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1409-1421, Nov. 2005.
[2] J. Park and S. Sahni, "An Online Heuristic for Maximum Lifetime Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1048-1056, Aug. 2006.
[3] H. Luo, J. Luo, Y. Liu, and S.K. Das, "Adaptive Data Fusion for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1286-1299, Oct. 2006.
[4] Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, B. Li, and Q. Zhang, "Hop ID: A Virtual Coordinate-Based Routing for Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1075-1089, Sept. 2007.
[5] M.-J. Tsai, H.-Y. Yang, and W.-Q. Huang, "Axis-Based Virtual Coordinate Assignment Protocol and Delivery-Guaranteed Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
[6] C.-H. Lin, B.-H. Liu, H.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Kao, and M.-J. Tsai, "Virtual-Coordinate-Based Delivery-Guaranteed Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks with Unidirectional Links," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[7] H. Takagi and L. Kleinrock, "Optimal Transmission Ranges for Randomly Distributed Packet Radio Terminals," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 246-257, Mar. 1984.
[8] E. Kranakis, H. Singh, and J. Urrutia, "Compass Routing on Geometric Networks," Proc. Canadian Conf. Computational Geometry (CCCG), 1999.
[9] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, "Loop-Free Hybrid Single-Path/Flooding Routing Algorithms with Guaranteed Delivery for Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1023-1032, Oct. 2001.
[10] I. Stojmenovic, "Position-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 128-134, July 2002.
[11] Q. Fang, J. Gao, and L.J. Guibas, "Locating and Bypassing Routing Holes in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[12] S. Subramanian, S. Shakkottai, and P. Gupta, "On Optimal Geographic Routing in Wireless Networks with Holes and Non-Uniform Traffic," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
[13] S. Subramanian, S. Shakkottai, and P. Gupta, "Optimal Geographic Routing for Wireless Networks with Near-Arbitrary Holes and Traffic," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[14] B. Karp and H. Kung, "GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MOBICOM, 2000.
[15] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, "Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," ACM Wireless Networks, vol. 7, pp. 609-616, 2001.
[16] F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, Y. Zhang, and A. Zollinger, "Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice," Proc. Ann. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2003.
[17] B. Leong, S. Mitra, and B. Liskov, "Path Vector Face Routing: Geographic Routing with Local Face Information," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), 2005.
[18] K.R. Gabriel and R.R. Sokal, "A New Statistical Approach to Geographic Variation Analysis," Systematic Zoology, vol. 18, pp. 259-278, 1969.
[19] G.T. Toussaint, "The Relative Neighbourhood Graph of a Finite Planar Set," Pattern Recognition, vol. 12, pp. 261-268, 1980.
[20] H. Frey and I. Stojmenovic, "On Delivery Guarantees of Face and Combined Greedy-Face Routing in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MOBICOM, 2006.
[21] T. Clouser, M. Miyashita, and M. Nesterenko, "Fast Geometric Routing with Concurrent Face Traversal," Proc. Int'l Conf. Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS), 2008.
[22] F. Zhang, H. Li, A.A. Jiang, J. Chen, and P. Luo, "Face Tracing Based Geographic Routing in Nonplanar Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.

Index Terms:
Wireless ad hoc network, routing protocol, guaranteed packet delivery.
Citation:
Chia-Hung Lin, Shiao-An Yuan, Shih-Wei Chiu, Ming-Jer Tsai, "ProgressFace: An Algorithm to Improve Routing Efficiency of GPSR-Like Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 822-834, June 2010, doi:10.1109/TC.2010.47
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.