The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - April (2010 vol.59)
pp: 478-491
Clemens Moser , ETH Zurich, Zurich
Lothar Thiele , ETH Zurich, Zurich
Davide Brunelli , University of Bologna, Bologna
Luca Benini , University of Bologna, Bologna
ABSTRACT
Recently, there has been a substantial interest in the design of systems that receive their energy from regenerative sources such as solar cells. In contrast to approaches that minimize the power consumption subject to performance constraints, we are concerned with optimizing the performance of an application while respecting the limited and time-varying amount of available power. In this paper, we address power management of, e.g., wireless sensor nodes which receive their energy from solar cells. Based on a prediction of the future available energy, we adapt parameters of the application in order to maximize the utility in a long-term perspective. The paper presents a formal model of the corresponding optimization problem including constraints concerning buffer sizes, timing, and rates. Instead of solving the optimization problem online which may be prohibitively complex in terms of running time and energy consumption, we apply multiparametric programming to precompute the application parameters offline for different environmental conditions and system states. In order to guarantee sustainable operation, we propose a hierarchical software design which comprises a worst-case prediction of the incoming energy. As a further contribution, we suggest a new method for approximate multiparametric linear programming which substantially lowers the computational demand and memory requirement of the embedded software. Our approaches are evaluated using long-term measurements of solar energy in an outdoor environment.
INDEX TERMS
Embedded systems, energy harvesting, power management, multiparametric linear programming.
CITATION
Clemens Moser, Lothar Thiele, Davide Brunelli, Luca Benini, "Adaptive Power Management for Environmentally Powered Systems", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.59, no. 4, pp. 478-491, April 2010, doi:10.1109/TC.2009.158
REFERENCES
[1] G. Werner-Allen, K. Lorincz, J. Johnson, J. Lees, and M. Welsh, "Fidelity and Yield in a Volcano Monitoring Sensor Network," Proc. Seventh Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '06), pp. 381-396, 2006.
[2] R. Szewczyk, J. Polastre, A. Mainwaring, and D. Culler, "Lessons from a Sensor Network Expedition," Proc. First European Workshop Sensor Networks (EWSN), pp. 307-322, 2004.
[3] K. Martinez, R. Ong, and J. Hart, "Glacsweb: A Sensor Network for Hostile Environments," Proc. First IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks, 2004.
[4] K. Roemer and F. Mattern, "The Design Space of Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Wireless Comm., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 54-61, Dec. 2004.
[5] S. Roundy, D. Steingart, L. Frechette, P.K. Wright, and J.M. Rabaey, "Power Sources for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. First European Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN '04), pp. 1-17, Jan. 2004.
[6] V. Raghunathan, A. Kansal, J. Hsu, J. Friedman, and M.B. Srivastava, "Design Considerations for Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Embedded Systems," Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '05), pp. 457-462, Apr. 2005.
[7] J. Beutel, S. Gruber, A. Hasler, R. Lim, A. Meier, C. Plessl, I. Talzi, L. Thiele, C. Tschudin, M. Woehrle, and M. Yuecel, "Permadaq: A Scientific Instrument for Precision Sensing and Data Recovery in Environmental Extremes," Proc. Eighth ACM/IEEE Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN/SPOTS '09), pp. 265-276, 2009.
[8] J. Hsu, A. Kansal, J. Friedman, V. Raghunathan, and M. Srivastava, "Energy Harvesting Support for Sensor Networks," Proc. SPOTS Track at Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '05), 2005.
[9] X. Jiang, J. Polastre, and D.E. Culler, "Perpetual Environmentally Powered Sensor Networks," Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '05), pp. 463-468, Apr. 2005.
[10] C. Park and P. Chou, "Ambimax: Autonomous Energy Harvesting Platform for Multi-Supply Wireless Sensor Nodes," Proc. Int'l Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '06), vol. 1, 2006.
[11] G. Werner-Allen, S. Dawson-Haggerty, and M. Welsh, "Lance: Optimizing High-Resolution Signal Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Sixth ACM Conf. Embedded Network Sensor Systems (SenSys '08), pp. 169-182, 2008.
[12] K. Klues, V. Handziski, C. Lu, A. Wolisz, D. Culler, D. Gay, and P. Levis, "Integrating Concurrency Control Energy Management in Device Drivers," Proc. ACM SIGOPS, pp. 251-264, 2007.
[13] A. Kansal, D. Potter, and M.B. Srivastava, "Performance Aware Tasking for Environmentally Powered Sensor Networks," Proc. SIGMETRICS '04, pp. 223-234, June 2004.
[14] C. Moser, L. Thiele, D. Brunelli, and L. Benini, "Adaptive Power Management in Energy Harvesting Systems," Proc. Conf. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE '07), pp. 773-778, 2007.
[15] C. Moser, L. Thiele, D. Brunelli, and L. Benini, "Robust and Low Complexity Rate Control for Solar Powered Sensors," Proc. Conf. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE '08), Mar. 2008.
[16] C. Moser, L. Thiele, D. Brunelli, and L. Benini, "Approximate Control Design for Solar Driven Sensor Nodes," Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC '08), pp. 634-637, Apr. 2008.
[17] A. Kansal, J. Hsu, S. Zahedi, and M.B. Srivastava, "Power Management in Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks," Trans. Embedded Computing Systems, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 32, 2007.
[18] C.M. Vigorito, D. Ganesan, and A.G. Barto, "Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Fourth Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '07), pp. 21-30, 2007.
[19] C. Moser, D. Brunelli, L. Thiele, and L. Benini, "Real-Time Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes," Real-Time Systems, vol. 37, pp. 233-260, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2007.
[20] S. Liu, Q. Qiu, and Q. Wu, "Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting," Proc. Conf. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE '08), Mar. 2008.
[21] C. Rusu, R.G. Melhem, and D. Mosse, "Multi-Version Scheduling in Rechargeable Energy-Aware Real-Time Systems," Proc. 15th Euromicro Conf. Real-Time Systems (ECRTS '03), pp. 95-104, July 2003.
[22] C. Moser, J.-J. Chen, and L. Thiele, "Reward Maximization for Embedded Systems with Renewable Energies," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA '08), pp. 247-256, 2008.
[23] M. Morari and J. Lee, "Model Predictive Control: Past, Present and Future," Computers and Chemical Eng., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 667-682, 1999.
[24] J. Hsu, S. Zahedi, A. Kansal, M. Srivastava, and V. Raghunathan, "Adaptive Duty Cycling for Energy Harvesting Systems," Proc. 2006 Int'l Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED '06), pp. 180-185, 2006.
[25] A. Bemporad, F. Borrelli, and M. Morari, "Model Predictive Control Based on Linear Programming—The Explicit Solution," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1974-1985, Dec. 2002.
[26] F. Borrelli, A. Bemporad, and M. Morari, "A Geometric Algorithm for Multi-Parametric Linear Programming," J. Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 515-540, Sept. 2003.
[27] M. Kvasnica, P. Grieder, and M. Baotić, "Multi-Parametric Toolbox (MPT)," http://control.ee.ethz.ch~mpt/, 2004.
[28] Sunergy, "Recordings of Solar Light Intensity from 08/08/2005 to 04/09/2005, Datasheet," http://sunergy.dmclf.orgcms/, June 2006.
[29] M. Rahimi, R. Baer, O.I. Iroezi, J.C. Garcia, J. Warrior, D. Estrin, and M. Srivastava, "Cyclops: In Situ Image Sensing Interpretation in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '05), pp. 192-204, 2005.
[30] "Crossbow Technology," http:/www.xbow.com, 2009.
[31] "Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technologies, Photovoltaic Lab: Recordings of Solar Light Intensity at Mont Soleil from 01/01/2002 to 31/09/2006," www.pvtest.ch, Mar. 2007.
[32] C. Filippi, "An Algorithm for Approximate Multiparametric Linear Programming," J. Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 73-95, Jan. 2004.
[33] C. Jones, M. Baric, and M. Morari, "Multiparametric Linear Programming with Applications to Control," European J. Control, vol. 13, pp. 152-170, Mar. 2007.
[34] A. Magnani and S. Boyd, "Convex Piecewise-Linear Fitting," Optimization and Eng., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-17, Mar. 2008.
[35] J. Beutel, M. Dyer, M. Hinz, L. Meier, and M. Ringwald, "Next-Generation Prototyping of Sensor Networks," Proc. Second ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), pp. 291-292, Nov. 2004.
[36] Moteiv Corporation, "Tmote Sky—Ultra Low Power IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Wireless Sensor Module, Datasheet," http://www. moteiv.com/products/docstmote-sky-datasheet.pdf , June 2006.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool