The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.10 - October (2009 vol.58)
pp: 1382-1397
Dakai Zhu , University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio
Hakan Aydin , George Mason University, Fairfax
ABSTRACT
Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) has been widely used to manage energy in real-time embedded systems. However, it was recently shown that DVFS has direct and adverse effects on system reliability. In this work, we investigate static and dynamic reliability-aware energy management schemes to minimize energy consumption for periodic real-time systems while preserving system reliability. Focusing on earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduling, we first show that the static version of the problem is NP-hard and propose two task-level utilization-based heuristics. Then, we develop a job-level online scheme by building on the idea of wrapper-tasks, to monitor and manage dynamic slack efficiently in reliability-aware settings. The feasibility of the dynamic scheme is formally proved. Finally, we present two integrated approaches to reclaim both static and dynamic slack at runtime. To preserve system reliability, the proposed schemes incorporate recovery tasks/jobs into the schedule as needed, while still using the remaining slack for energy savings. The proposed schemes are evaluated through extensive simulations. The results confirm that all the proposed schemes can preserve the system reliability, while the ordinary (but reliability-ignorant) energy management schemes result in drastically decreased system reliability. For the static heuristics, the energy savings are close to what can be achieved by an optimal solution by a margin of 5 percent. By effectively exploiting the runtime slack, the dynamic schemes can achieve additional energy savings while preserving system reliability.
INDEX TERMS
Real-time systems, periodic tasks, earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduling, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), reliability, transient faults, backward recovery.
CITATION
Dakai Zhu, Hakan Aydin, "Reliability-Aware Energy Management for Periodic Real-Time Tasks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.58, no. 10, pp. 1382-1397, October 2009, doi:10.1109/TC.2009.56
REFERENCES
[1] Intel XScale Technology and Processors, http://developer. intel.com/designintelxscale /, 2008.
[2] Intel Corp. Mobile Pentium iii Processor-m Datasheet. Order Number: 298340-002, Oct. 2001.
[3] H. Aydin, V. Devadas, and D. Zhu, “System-Level Energy Management for Periodic Real-Time Tasks,” Proc. 27th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTSS), pp. 313-322, Dec. 2006.
[4] H. Aydin, R. Melhem, D. Mossé, and P. Mejia-Alvarez, “Power-Aware Scheduling for Periodic Real-Time Tasks,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 584-600, May 2004.
[5] S. Baruah, R. Howell, and L. Rosier, “Algorithms and Complexity Concerning the Preemptive Scheduling of Periodic Real-Time Tasks on One Processor,” Real-Time Systems, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 301-324, 1990.
[6] E. Bini, G.C. Buttazzo, and G. Lipari, “Speed Modulation in Energy-Aware Real-Time Systems,” Proc. 17th Euromicro Conf. Real-Time Systems, pp. 3-10, 2005.
[7] T.D. Burd and R.W. Brodersen, “Energy Efficient cmos Microprocessor Design,” Proc. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences (HICSS), pp. 288-293, Jan. 1995.
[8] M. Caccamo, G. Buttazzo, and L. Sha, “Capacity Sharing for Overrun Control,” Proc. Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTSS), pp.295-304, 2000.
[9] X. Castillo, S. McConnel, and D. Siewiorek, “Derivation and Calibration of a Transient Error Reliability Model,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 658-671, July 1982.
[10] J.-J. Chen and T.-W. Kuo, “Multiprocessor Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks with Different Power Characteristics,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing, pp. 13-20, June 2005.
[11] J.-J. Chen and T.-W. Kuo, “Procrastination Determination for Periodic Real-Time Tasks in Leakage-Aware Dynamic Voltage Scaling Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer-Aided Design, pp.289-294, 2007.
[12] V. Degalahal, L. Li, V. Narayanan, M. Kandemir, and M.J. Irwin, “Soft Errors Issues in Low-Power Caches,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1157-1166, Oct. 2005.
[13] A. Ejlali, M.T. Schmitz, B.M. Al-Hashimi, S.G. Miremadi, and P. Rosinger, “Energy Efficient SEU-Tolerance in DVS-Enabled Real-Time Systems through Information Redundancy,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Low Power and Electronics and Design, pp. 281-286, 2005.
[14] E. (Mootaz) Elnozahy, R. Melhem, and D. Mossé, “Energy-Efficient Duplex and TMR Real-Time Systems,” Proc. 23rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 256-265, Dec. 2002.
[15] D. Ernst, S. Das, S. Lee, D. Blaauw, T. Austin, T. Mudge, N.S. Kim, and K. Flautner, “Razor: Circuit-Level Correction of Timing Errors for Low-Power Operation,” IEEE Micro, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 10-20, Nov./Dec. 2004.
[16] R. Ernst and W. Ye, “Embedded Program Timing Analysis Based on Path Clustering and Architecture Classification,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer-Aided Design, pp. 598-604, 1997.
[17] M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. Freeman, 1979.
[18] P. Hazucha and C. Svensson, “Impact of CMOS Technology Scaling on the Atmospheric Neutron Soft Error Rate,” IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 2586-2594, Dec. 2000.
[19] S. Irani, S. Shukla, and R. Gupta, “Algorithms for Power Savings,” Proc. Symp. Discrete Algorithms, pp. 37-46, 2003.
[20] T. Ishihara and H. Yauura, “Voltage Scheduling Problem for Dynamically Variable Voltage Processors,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design, pp. 197-202, 1998.
[21] R.K. Iyer, D.J. Rossetti, and M.C. Hsueh, “Measurement and Modeling of Computer Reliability as Affected by System Activity,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 214-237, Aug. 1986.
[22] K. Jeffay and D.L. Stone, “Accounting for Interrupt Handling Costs in Dynamic Priority Task Systems,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 212-221, Dec. 1993.
[23] R. Jejurikar, C. Pereira, and R. Gupta, “Leakage Aware Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-Time Embedded Systems,” Proc. 41st Design Automation Conf., pp. 275-280, 2004.
[24] A.R. Lebeck, X. Fan, H. Zeng, and C.S. Ellis, “Power Aware Page Allocation,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, pp. 105-116, 2000.
[25] C.L. Liu and J.W. Layland, “Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard Real-Time Environment,” J. ACM, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 46-61, 1973.
[26] R. Melhem, D. Mossé, and E. (Mootaz) Elnozahy, “The Interplay of Power Management and Fault Recovery in Real-Time Systems,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 217-231, Feb. 2004.
[27] P. Pillai and K.G. Shin, “Real-Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Low-Power Embedded Operating Systems,” Proc. 18th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles, pp. 89-102, Oct. 2001.
[28] P. Pop, K.H. Poulsen, V. Izosimov, and P. Eles, “Scheduling and Voltage Scaling for Energy/Reliability Trade Offs in Fault-Tolerant Time-Triggered Embedded Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis, pp. 233-238, 2007.
[29] D.K. Pradhan, Fault Tolerance Computing: Theory and Techniques. Prentice-Hall, 1986.
[30] S. Saewong and R. Rajkumar, “Practical Voltage Scaling for Fixed-Priority RT-Systems,” Proc. Ninth IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symp., pp. 106-114, 2003.
[31] C. Scordino and G. Lipari, “A Resource Reservation Algorithm for Power-Aware Scheduling of Periodic and Aperiodic Real-Time Tasks,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1509-1522, Dec. 2006.
[32] K. Seth, A. Anantaraman, F. Mueller, and E. Rotenberg, “Fast: Frequency-Aware Static Timing Analysis,” Proc. 24th IEEE Real-Time System Symp., pp. 40-51, 2003.
[33] O.S. Unsal, I. Koren, and C.M. Krishna, “Towards Energy-Aware Software-Based Fault Tolerance in Real-Time Systems,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Low Power Electronics Design, pp. 124-129, 2002.
[34] M. Weiser, B. Welch, A. Demers, and S. Shenker, “Scheduling for Reduced CPU Energy,” Proc. First USENIX Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation, Nov. 1994.
[35] F. Yao, A. Demers, and S. Shenker, “A Scheduling Model for Reduced CPU Energy,” Proc. 36th Ann. Symp. Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 374-382, Oct. 1995.
[36] Y. Zhang and K. Chakrabarty, “Energy-Aware Adaptive Checkpointing in Embedded Real-Time Systems,” Proc. IEEE/ACM Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conf. (DATE), 2003.
[37] Y. Zhang, K. Chakrabarty, and V. Swaminathan, “Energy-Aware Fault Tolerance in Fixed-Priority Real-Time Embedded Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Aided Design, Nov. 2003.
[38] D. Zhu, “Reliability-Aware Dynamic Energy Management in Dependable Embedded Real-Time Systems,” Proc. 12th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symp. 2006
[39] D. Zhu and H. Aydin, “Energy Management for Real-Time Embedded Systems with Reliability Requirements,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Aidded Design, pp. 528-534, 2006.
[40] D. Zhu and H. Aydin, “Reliability-Aware Energy Management for Periodic Real-Time Tasks,” technical report, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, http://www.cs.utsa.edu/~dzhu/papersCS-TR-2008-005-zhu.pdf , 2006.
[41] D. Zhu, H. Aydin, and J.-J. Chen, “Optimistic Reliability Aware Energy Management for Real-Time Tasks with Probabilistic Execution Times,” Proc. 29th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTSS), pp. 313-322, 2008.
[42] D. Zhu, R. Melhem, and D. Mossé, “The Effects of Energy Management on Reliability in Real-Time Embedded Systems,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Aidded Design, pp. 35-40, 2004.
[43] D. Zhu, R. Melhem, D. Mossé, and E. (Mootaz) Elnozahy, “Analysis of an Energy Efficient Optimistic tmr Scheme,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems, pp. 559-568, 2004.
[44] D. Zhu, X. Qi, and H. Aydin, “Priority-Monotonic Energy Management for Real-Time Systems with Reliability Requirements,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Design, pp. 629-635, 2007.
[45] D. Zhu, X. Qi, and H. Aydin, “Energy Management for Periodic Real-Time Tasks with Variable Assurance Requirements,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), pp. 259-268, 2008.
[46] J.F. Ziegler, Trends in Electronic Reliability: Effects of Terrestrial Cosmic Rays, http://www.srim.org/SERSERTrends.htm, 2004.
13 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool