The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - May (2009 vol.58)
pp: 605-619
Hong Shen , University of Adelaide, Adelaide
Shihong Xu , University of Adelaide, Adelaide
ABSTRACT
With the emergence of various advanced networks that comprise a group of geographically distributed servers, such as Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems, coordinated en-route Web caching in multiserver networks becomes increasingly attractive but remains of great challenge as solutions for single-server networks become invalid here. In this paper, we first establish mathematical formulation for this problem that takes into account all requests (to any server) that pass through the intermediate nodes on a response path and caches the requested object optimally among these nodes so that system's total gain is maximized. Then, we derive efficient dynamic programming-based methods for finding optimal solutions to the problem for the unconstrained case and two QoS-constrained cases, respectively. For each case, we present a caching scheme to illustrate application of the corresponding method. Finally, we evaluate the proposed schemes on different performance metrics through extensive simulation experiments. The experiment results show that our proposed schemes can yield a steady performance improvement and achieve desired QoS in a multiserver network. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results for solving the problem of coordinated en-route Web caching in multiserver networks.
INDEX TERMS
En-route Web caching, multiserver network, Web object placement, cache content replacement, dynamic programming, quality of service.
CITATION
Hong Shen, Shihong Xu, "Coordinated En-Route Web Caching in Multiserver Networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.58, no. 5, pp. 605-619, May 2009, doi:10.1109/TC.2008.162
REFERENCES
[1] P.B. Danzig, R.S. Hall, and M.F. Schwartz, “A Case for Caching File Objects Inside Internetworks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '93, pp.239-248, 1993.
[2] E. Cohen, B. Krishnamurthy, and J. Rexford, “Improving End-to-End Performance of the Web Using Server Volumes and Proxy Filters,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '98, pp. 241-253, 1998.
[3] J. Shim, P. Scheuermann, and R. Vingralek, “Proxy Cache Algorithms: Design, Implementation, and Performance,” Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 549-562, 1999.
[4] P. Krishnan and B. Sugla, “Utility of Co-Operating Web Proxy Caches,” Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 30, nos. 1-7, pp.195-203, 1998.
[5] L. Fan, P. Cao, J. Almeida, and A.Z. Broder, “Summary Cache: A Scalable Wide-Area Web Cache Sharing Protocol,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 281-293, June 2000.
[6] R. Tewari, M. Dahlin, H.M. Vin, and J.S. Kay, “Design Considerations for Distributed Caching on the Internet,” Proc.19th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '99), pp. 273-284, 1999.
[7] P. Rodriguez, C. Spanner, and E. Biersack, “Analysis of Web Caching Architectures: Hierarchical and Distributed Caching,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 404-418, Aug. 2001.
[8] B.D. Davison, “A Web Caching Primer,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 5, no. 4 pp. 38-45, July/Aug. 2001.
[9] P. Krishnan, D. Raz, and Y. Shavitt, “The Cache Location Problem,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 5, pp.568-582, Oct. 2000.
[10] S. Bhattacharjee, K.L. Calvert, and E.W. Zegura, “Self-Organizing Wide-Area Network Caches,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '98, vol. 2, pp.600-608, 1998.
[11] P. Rodriguez and S. Sibal, “SPREAD: Scalable Platform for Reliable and Efficient Automated Distribution,” Computer Networks, vol. 33, nos. 1-6, pp. 33-49, 2000.
[12] X. Tang and S.T. Chanson, “Coordinated En-Route Web Caching,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 595-607, June 2002.
[13] S. Venkataraman, J. Naughton, and M. Livny, “Remote Load-Sensitive Caching for Multi-Server Database Systems,” Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), 1998.
[14] S. Xu and H. Shen, “An O(NH) Algorithm for Dual-Server Coordinated En-Route Web Caching,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT '06), pp. 399-404, 2006.
[15] B.D. Davison, Proxy Cache Comparison, http://www.web-caching. comproxy-comparison.html , 2008.
[16] B. Awerbuch, Y. Bartal, and A. Fiat, “Distributed Paging for General Networks,” Proc. Seventh Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '96), 1996.
[17] A. Leff, J.L. Wolf, and P.S. Yu, “Replication Algorithms in a Remote Caching Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1185-1204, Nov. 1993.
[18] P.S. Yu and E.A. MacNair, “Performance Study of a Collaborative Method for Hierarchical Caching in Proxy Servers,” Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 30, nos. 1-7, pp. 215-224, Apr. 1998.
[19] M.R. Korupolu, C.G. Plaxton, and R. Rajaraman, “Placement Algorithms for Hierarchical Cooperative Caching,” Proc. 10th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '99), pp. 586-595, 1999.
[20] A. Chankhunthod, P.B. Danzig, C. Neerdaels, M.F. Schwartz, and K.J. Worrell, “A Hierarchical Internet Object Cache,” Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf. (USENIX '96), pp. 153-164, 1996.
[21] D. Povey and J. Harrison, “A Distributed Internet Cache,” Proc. 20th Australian Computer Science Conf. (ACSC '97), Feb. 1997.
[22] Z. Liu, K. Zheng, and B. Liu, “Hybrid Cache Architecture for High Speed Packet Processing,” Proc. 13th Symp. High Performance Interconnects (HOTI '05), pp. 67-72, 2005.
[23] P. Scheuermann, J. Shim, and R. Vingralek, “A Case for Delay Conscious Caching of Web Documents,” Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 29, nos. 8-13, pp. 997-1005, 1997.
[24] K. Li, H. Shen, F.Y.L. Chin, and S.Q. Zheng, “Optimal Methods for Coordinated En-Route Web Caching for Tree Networks,” ACM Trans. Internet Technology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 480-507, 2005.
[25] J. Dilley, B. Maggs, J. Parikh, H. Prokop, R. Sitaraman, and B. Weihl, “Globally Distributed Content Delivery,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 50-58, Sept./Oct. 2002.
[26] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, F. Kaashoek, and H. Balakrishnan, “Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '01, pp. 149-160, 2001.
[27] L. Qiu, V.N. Padmanabhan, and G.M. Voelker, “On the Placement of Web Server Replicas,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, pp. 1587-1596, 2001.
[28] P. Mundur and P. Arankalle, “Optimal Server Allocations for Streaming Multimedia Applications on the Internet,” Computer Networks, vol. 50, no. 18, pp. 3608-3621, 2006.
[29] X. Tang, H. Chi, and S. Chanson, “Optimal Replica Placement under TTL-Based Consistency,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 351-363, Mar. 2007.
[30] M. Rabinovich and A. Aggarwal, “Radar: A Scalable Architecture for a Global Web Hosting Service,” Computer Network, vol. 31, pp.1545-1561, 1999.
[31] G. Pierre and M. Van Steen, “Design and Implementation of a User-Centered Content Delivery Network,” Proc. Third Workshop Internet Applications (WIAPP), 2003.
[32] S. Sivasubramanian, M. Szymaniak, G. Pierre, and M. Steen, “Replication for Web Hosting Systems,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 36, pp. 291-334, 2004.
[33] F.T. Jurgen Branke and P. Funes, “Evolutionary Design of En-Route Caching Strategies,” Applied Soft Computing, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 890-898, 2007.
[34] J.B. Anxiao Jiang, “Optimal Content Placement for En-Route Web Caching,” Proc. Second IEEE Int'l Symp. Network Computing and Applications (NCA '03), pp. 9-16, 2003.
[35] B. Krishnamurthy and C.E. Wills, “Piggyback Server Invalidation for Proxy Cache Coherency,” Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 30, nos. 1-7, pp. 185-193, 1998.
[36] X. Xiao and L.M. Ni, “Internet QoS: A Big Picture,” IEEE Network, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 8-18, Mar./Apr. 1999.
[37] M.-X. Tang and M.-J. Xu, “QoS-Aware Replica Placement for Content Distribution,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 921-932, Oct. 2005.
[38] K.L. Calvert, M.B. Doar, and E.W. Zegura, “Modelling Internet Topology,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 160-163, June 1997.
[39] P. Barford and M. Crovella, “Generating Representative Web Workloads for Network and Server Performance Evaluation,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS '98), pp. 151-160, 1998.
[40] D. Cheung, B. Kao, and J. Lee, “Discovering User Access Patterns on the World Wide Web,” Proc. First Pacific-Asia Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD '97), Feb. 1997.
[41] L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Phillips, and S. Shenker, “Web Caching and Zip-Like Distributions: Evidence and Implications,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, pp. 126-134, 1999.
55 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool