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Issue No.05  May (2008 vol.57)
pp: 672685
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.2007.70832
ABSTRACT
Elliptic curve (EC) cryptography is expected to have a significant role in enabling information security in constrained embedded devices. In order to be efficient on a target architecture, EC cryptosystems (ECC) require an accurate choice/tuning of the algorithms that perform the underlying mathematical operations. This paper performs a cyclelevel analysis of the dependencies of ECC performance from the interaction between the features of the mathematical algorithms and the actual architectural and microarchitectural features of an ARM XScale processor. The paper investigates the origin of performance through the breakdown of execution into the cycles spent in the different activities at field and at ellipticcurve levels. In addition, we perform a cyclelevel analysis of a modified ARM processor that includes in its datapath a wordlevel finite field polynomial multiplier (poly_mul). The paper points out the most advantageous mix of EC parameters both for the standard ARM XScale platform and for the one equipped with the poly_mul unit. In this way, the latter allows more than 41% execution time reduction on the considered benchmarks. Then, the paper analyses the correlation between EC benchmark performance and the possible architectural organizations of a processor equipped with poly_mul unit(s). For instance, only superscalar pipelines can exploit the features of outoforder execution and only very complex organizations (e.g. 4way superscalar) can exploit a high number of available ALUs. Conversely, we show that there are no benefits in endowing the processor with more than one poly_mul and we point out a possible tradeoff between performance and complexity increase: 2way inorder/outoforder pipeline allows +50% and +90% IPC, respectively. Finally, we show that there are not critical constraints on the latency and pipelining capability of the poly_mul unit.
INDEX TERMS
Cryptography, Elliptic curves, Performance Evaluation, Public key cryptosystems, Processor Architectures, Pipeline processors, Instruction set design, Hardware/software interfaces, Microprocessor/microcomputer applications, Portable devices
CITATION
Irina Branovic, Roberto Giorgi, Enrico Martinelli, "Effects of InstructionSet Extensions on an Embedded Processor: A Case Study on Elliptic Curve Cryptography over GF(2/sup m/)", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.57, no. 5, pp. 672685, May 2008, doi:10.1109/TC.2007.70832
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